Sony FE 28-60mm f/4-f/5.6 Close up tests

The Sony 28/60mm f/4-f/5.6 is a small lens that was initially provided a kit lens for the Sony A7C a 24 megapixel low end camera.

There have been several discussion on underwater forum about the performance of water contact optics adapters to see what is best etc etc.

However I could not find any proper resolution test for this lens so I thought of giving it a go myself.

Dpreview has a decent sample gallery.

Official Test Data from Sony

You can find the lens specifications on Sony website

The lens is nothin special mostly plastic but it is weather sealed. It has only 7 aperture blades so this is a lens for snapping around happily topside but not exactly a top of the range device.

The construction comprises 8 elements in 7 groups. Sony publishes the MFT resolution chart for this lens on their website.

Sony has some strange nomenclature however for reference images [3] is at 28mm f/4 and [4] 28mm at f/8.

[5] and [6] are at 60mm less interesting for underwater purposes.

The red lines indicate a resolution of 10 lp/mm which is a really low value (the A1 sensor resolves up to 120 lp/mm). The blue lines indicate 30 lp/mm, The [10] indicates Sagittal and [11] meridional lines.

Read this excellent article from Nikon on MTF to understand how to read the graph.

What graphic [3] is telling us is that as we move away from the centre of the frame both sagittal and meridional lines drop in contrast.

Graph [4] shows that at f/8 the deterioration as we move towards the edge of the frame is more contained neverthless meriodional lines drop considerably.

While we cannot conclude how this lens will compare to other lenses what we see from the MFT is that the 28-60mm as tested performs better at f/8 than it does at f/4 when used at 28mm. In fairness it seems to be the same situation at 60mm but the gap between f/4 and f/8 is much less.

I found a good test here aligned to what you will read here to a good extent.

Practical Home Made Test

I sourced a cushion with a complex embroided decoration.

With the camera on a tripod a remote release and one off camera strobe I took shots at f/4 f/5.6 f/8 and f/11. I run tests with the camera poiting at the centre with field of curvature and off centre with the centre of the cushion at the edges.

Here are my findings.

Centre Performance

800% center crop Left f/4 Right f/5.6

As anticipated the lens is not sharper in the center when wide open.

800% center crop Left f/5.6 Right f/8

At f/5.6 the difference with f/8 is minimal

800% center crop Left f/8 Right f/11

Stopping down to f/11 gives a mild deterioration.

Looking at centre I would say f/5.6 to f/8 is the way to go.

Edge Performance

Let’s see the situation at the edges.

400% edge crop Left f/4 Right f/5.6

f/4 was not better in the centre and is pretty bad at the edge.

400% edge crop Left f/5.6 Right f/8

Stopping down to f/8 sees an improvement the situation is not great though.

400% edge crop Left 8 Right f/11

At f/11 the edges are ok.

So looking at edge performance I would use this lens between f/8 and f/11.

Full resolution examples here

28-60mm 28/4
28-60mm 28/5.6
28-60mm 28/8
28-60mm 28/11

Consideration for use underwater

Looking at the lens in isolation I would think the starting point is f/8 with one stop up or down depending on the situation. This lens is not good wide open and beyond f/11 resolution starts to drop.

Alex Mustard has taken some comparison shots between the WACP-1 and the WWL-1 and his conclusion is that the performance of the WACP-1 at f/4 is similar to the WWL-1 at f/6.3. Based on my tests I would frankly not bother shooting this lens at f/4 the quality is just not there. The starting point would be f/8 and f/11 does not deteriorate edge performance that much but of course needs more light. Wider aperture like f/5.6 may be good for blue water shots.

My opinion is that this lens will not offer amazing sharpness no matter which adapter you use and is likely to stop at 26-28 megapixel in reality if not less depending on conditions, assuming your starting point is a camera with more than 40 megapixels.

it would be interesting to compare the water contact options at the aperture of f/8 and f/11 but we can safely conclude that the 28-60mm is not going to be a champion for ambient light shots in low light because the performance wide open is not great.

If I had to invest into the best image quality I would be looking at a different master lens and a larger water contact optic such as the WACP-1.

Additional Information

I have created some stir on the fact that this lens is quite weak but it actually is.

I took the same shots with my 24-70mm GMII and I can say that there are 3 stops difference at the edges between those lenses

The 24-70 at 28mm at f/4 is the same of the 28-60mm at f/11

This is a 200% crop of the edges

Left 24-70 GM at 28mm f/4 Right 28-60mm at 28mm f/11

Which Sony Camera for Underwater Photography in 2023

Sony has been the fist brand to produce a full frame mirrorless camera in 2013 with the Alpha 7. Ten years later Sony is a market leader in Digital Cameras and their division Sony Semiconductors is the market leader in sensor technology for a variety of applications, mobile phones, security and of course digital cameras.

It is not all rosy though, Sony ergonomics and menu system have been historically not intuitive with many people criticising or simply despising it.

In July 2020 Sony releases the A7S III a low megapixel camera completely focussed on video functionality with a strong performance in low light.

The A7S III offered a completely redesigned menu system and this was very well received by the public.

The ergononics were greatly improved and many video users started to convert to Sony, there were and are still some quirks but the useability had greatly improved from past model.

Since then the Alpha 1 announced in January 2021, the A7 IV and now the A7RV all have benefited from the new menu system and improved ergonomics.

An additional important detail is that Sony cameras are small and portable with weights between 650 and 740 grams this means underwater housing are also compact.

The Sony E-Mount system is the most popular full frame mirrorless format and is supported by many 3rd party lens manufacturers: Sigma, Tamron, Samyang and others.

It is also the most popular and more affordable full frame format for underwater photography with many housing options.

But what is more exciting is that the Sony E-Mount has extensive support of water contact optics from Nauticam and there is even an adapter to use Nikkor water contact lenses.

And finally the auto focus system of Sony full frame camera is market leading and Since the A1 sports subject detection with improvements trickling into the entire range.

So many DSRL users have been sitting on the fence waiting and keeping hold of their rigs but now in 2023 there really is a lot of choice and the Sony system supported by Nauticam housing and port system can offer options to all type of underwater photography shooters.

I have done myself a lot of research and tried many of those cameras before deciding what to get and I want to share some of my thinking with you.

The 2023 Line Up

As of today I would consider only 3 Sony full frame camera for underwater photography and those are:

  • A1
  • A7R5
  • A7 IV

This is a small comparison table with some key data points:

SolutionCamera RPHousing RpCombined PriceMegapixelsReadout Flash SpeedEVFLCD

I will discuss the cameras from top to bottom. You can see that the price difference between the housings is not large but the price of the cameras are varying significantly.

Sony ILCE-1 aka A1

This camera sits on top of the current range of Sony full frame cameras and rightly so. The heart of the camera is a 50.1 megapixels stacked back illuminated sensor capable of a readout speed of 200 frames per second.

This means that the A1 is able to offer a black-out free shooting experience when the electronic shutter is used.

The other interesting characteristic of this camera is a flash sync speed of 1/400 s using mechanical shutter and the ability to trigger flash with electronic shutter up to 1/200 s.

The camera also offers a super high resolution viewfinder capable of 2048 × 1536 (QXGA) pixels although the best image quality is only available when the EVF is refreshed at 60 frames per second.

The A1 has many dials and controls including dedicated ones for exposure compensation and drive mode and generally feels compact and well built but perhaps not as robust as other premium models from Nikor or Canon.

It also offers 8k video up to 30 fps and 4k video up to 120 fps with a small crop. In general terms the A1 is still two years from its release the fastest camera on the market with a burst speed of 30 fps with autofocus.

Talking of autofocus this is simply the best AF on the market with subject eye detection and a very competent tracking mode for general purpose use.

I have the A1 myself if money is no object I would definitely recommend it if you are interested in a camera that is very fast to operate and has amazing video.

Nauticam offers an housing with all features available except touch screen.

Looking at the back of the housing you can see that even the multi function button is controlled by the housing.

For a review of the housing go to Underwater Photography Magazine and select issue 120.

Due to the compact size of the camera the housing itself is very compact for a full frame camera. A plus point is that the Nauticam housing can also be used for the A7S III with an adapter.

Sony ILCE-7R5 aka A7R5

This camera has recently been released and while the sensor is identical to the previous A7R4 the R5 offers the new improved menu system and a redesigned autofocus engine with subject detection.

The A7R5 has 61 megapixels and possibly the best image quality on the market for a full frame mirrorless camera.

The A7R5 has a single main dial with a subdial for movie and other modes. No dials exist for the drive.

The camera shares the same amazing EVF of the A1 but it has a fully articulated high resolution LCD.

The sync speed is a respectable 1/250 however the A7R5 has a very slow read out of 15 frames per second. This means video has a lot of rolling shutter and the burst rate is low as the camera reads slow and has many megapixels.

Nauticam has recently released the housing for this camera.

The housing is slightly simpler than the A1 due to the reduced number of controls and is very similar in size.

For a review of the housing go to Underwater Photography Magazine and select issue 130.

I believe the A7R5 will be a very popular choice for the underwater photographers and it is the perfect choice if IQ is your priority and in addition to underwater you also like landscape, architecture photography topside and video is not really your priority.

Sony ILCE-7M4 aka A7 IV

The A7 IV was released in fall 2021 and has marked a significant improvement over the very popular A7 III with a jump from 24 to 33 megapixels, improved EVF and autofocus and 4k video up to 60 fps with APSC crop.

The camera weakest point is the read LCD that has a very low resolution but otherwise this is a respectable camera with a price that has increased compared to previous models.

The camera body is very similar to the A7R5 and in general Sony cameras are fairly similar when it comes to a new release.

The housing is again very similar to the A7R5 due to the similar controls.

Although the EVF is ‘only’ 1280×960 this is perfectly adequate to check critical focus. Same cannot be said for the LCD and if you plan on getting this camera an underwater viewfinder is a must.

This camera like the A7R5 has a slow read out rate of 15 fps so it is not the best choice for fast moving subjects and burst but the AF is very functional so it will work well for your occasional kid running.

The A7 IV is a great choice is you like shooting in a variety of situation and especially in low light and you are not fussed by high megapixel count. In addition video quality is great and the APSC mode is very functional. It is a camera you can expand with accessories if you like.

Which camera is for me?

When it comes to choice this is mostly driven by your budget. While there are certainly differences in performance and functionality across the 3 models discussed all of them are perfectly capable of taking magnificient underwater images. Comparing sensor performance we can see we are splitting hair here. (The comparison is with the A7R4 that has the same sensor so it will be indentical)

I suppose it is somewhat suprising that the scores are so close but we need to take into account that those are normalised back to 8 megapixels.

In general terms I believe the A7R5 will be the most sought after model for underwater photography because of the high megapixel count, the high quality EVF and LCD and the functionality of the autofocus.

However if you can not or do not want to afford it the A7 IV is a very respectable choice. The LCD I believe is the key limitation of an otherwise very competent camera and frankly 33 megapixels are plenty.

The A1 will appeal to hybrid users that want the best photos and video and are most likely doing other form of wildlife shooting where speed matters.

Whatever you choose you cannot go wrong with the latest Sony models.

In the upcoming articles choosing the right ports for keeping your Sony full frame underwater system still portable.

Sony A1/A7S3 : Video Codecs

The A1 and A7S3 share the same codecs and format for (4K) video. The cameras have been around a few years however I could not find a proper analysis of the codecs. You can find the usual YouTube doing some qualitative analysis mostly lacking rigour and based on static charts which is not really sufficient.

I did this analysis on my A1 but the results hold for the A7S3.

So I decided to give it my own attention and you will get my findings in this post. I do not shoot 8K and for this format the choices are limited anyway to XAVC HS so not much to go about.

XAVC Basics

Sony has like many other brands their own codec for in camera video recording and their version is called XAVC.

You can find some more detailed information on Sony Pro Site.

Take into account that the documentation does not consider the newest XAVC HS based on HEVC coding.

In general terms you have two options:

  • Intra frame -> each frame is self contained and does not depend on other frames, the clip is a collection of compressed images
  • Group of Pictures (GOP) -> frames are a combination of 1 reference intraframe for each group of pictures and multiple P and B frames which means respectively Predicted and Bi-directional predicted.

More on GOP on Wikipedia.

GOP video is temporally compressed and more efficient in terms of space however it takes more computing effort to decode and encode.

Depending on the number of reference Intra frame inside a GOP you can have more or less prediction errors which manifest as noise or artifacts. So if you want to make sure that you don’t get motion artifacts you need to use an intraframe which means using more space.

A1 Codec Options

As mentioned XAVC gives you both options and the A1/A7S3 can record Intra video up to 240,250,300,600 Mbps depending on the frame rate Sony approach is 10mbps per frame.

GOP is more compressed and has 140,200,280 Mbps respectively for 24/25/30, 50/60, 100/120 frames per second. Please note higher frame rate of 100/120 fps is only supported on GOP formats as it would otherwise reach 1.2 Gbps.

Higher compression does not mean at all lower quality, analysing all codecs using ffprobe you can see that the individual Intra frames within a GOP structure are larger than the Intra frames of an All-Intra clip at higher bit rate. However due to the nature of GOP there will be potentially motion prediction errors and more noise.

A1 Sample Video

I ran some tests of a music box both static and in motion using Slog3. I warmly recommend using Slog3 for all your video as it the log compression achieves less bit utilisation and makes the video compression even more efficient.

From what I can see (there is a small focus error on the XAVC S moving part) there are minimal difference in motion handling and minimal differences on noise.

I checked each clip with Neat video using the same reference area. XAVC S and HS return the same amount of noise.


While All intra for some reason has less noise. I believe this is because the prediction introduce some small error themselves.


Considering those shots are taken at ISO 4000 there is not much to complain. ISO 4000 in Slog3 is the point where dual conversion gain goes into High gain. If you use a standard profile this would be 500. I do not recommend shooting the A1 or A7S3 in any other picture profile than slog3.

Visual Differences between Codecs

I frankly cannot see much of a difference between those codecs, I have also shot a few sequences in APSC in equivalence so at ISO 2000 and f/3.2 instead of f/4.5 and I could not see much difference except APSC has a bit more noise as expected.


The following table shows some key data points and my observation based on a series of 50 fps video test shots with the A1.

Sony A1/A7S3 Codecs

You can see that the key difference between the codecs is the bitrate, the edit effort (how taxing is on your machine) and the noise.

What codec you will use depends mostly on practical considerations as the difference in image quality are intangible.

The HS format which is based on HEVC has a single reference frame each second which means this codec is really for static scenes as most frame are predicted. XAVC HS biggest limitation is the lack of 25/30 fps options it is a good choice for 24 fps and it does not completely stall your machine in the editing.

The S variation is good in terms of space saving as well as generally being effective for motion however it is the hardest one to edit. If space is a problem and you are happy to convert or edit natively XAVC S is a good option. If you need something that can go on for long and manages almost all situations the XAVC S should be your choice however unless you have a workstation that supports accelerated H264 10 bits 422 (and there are not many at all) you will need to convert to an intermediate codec spending more time in post processing.

Finally the S-I All intra is the one that has the least noise and is more demanding on your memory card but is the easiest one to edit and play despite the higher bit rate. If you shoot wildlife, actions, or use gimbals and your default is 50/60 frames per second, the All intra codec XAVC S-I is the best option but it does not support higher frame rate so you would need to switch to another codec for those situations and this should be the XAVC S as it manages motion better.

I have not done a test with a gimbal but those scenario where a lot of pixel move in the frame is much more taking than my music box test.


Although the choice of codecs is not as rich as Panasonic cameras and there are no formats other than 16:9 there are no quality issues with the A1 and A7S3 codecs as long as you shoot in Slog3.

Obviously there are options for external recording although this is not the best option for run and gun and that would give you ProRes 422 HQ or ProRes RAW with huge files easier to edit. In the future I will do a comparison between the internal intra codec and ProRes 422 as well as ProRes 422 HQ so stay tuned.

If you have any question leave a comment and I will follow up.

Sony A1 : Video Resolution

When you buy a new camera some time after the initial release date you are lucky to find all sorts of videos of other geeks like you that have been testing.

I was referred to this video that shows quite a few quirks of the Sony A1. Gerald has since confirmed the A1 video is binned not line skipped.

You can’t always rely on third party so here are a number of geek tests.

The first question was do you need to shoot ASPC or full frame. APSC is scaled while full frame is binned which means the first may look better than the second but will have more noise.

Pixel Binning

As usual there is no official documentation of the camera inner workings but this diagram should help explain a few things.

On the upstream the potential flow for a classic bayer filter camera to accomplish binning (it is a guess). On the bottom what a mobile phone may be doing.

In the first case binning results in a reduction of resolution and potential artifacts. In the second only a reduction of resolution.

Now one of the question is what if we just crop the sensor in APSC and then scale down will it look better?

I have done exactly this test and the answer seems to be no.

UHD binned vs APSC scaled

In theory the binning should look much worse but what I have seen is that moire kicks off for both at around 2x the focal length of the other. So if APSC gives moire at 50mm full frame will give it at 100mm. The full frame moire is more severe when it occurs but in most cases you cannot tell the APSC and binned UHD apart in conditions of good light.

other side by side of a dpreview sample shot cropped again there is moire in their situation on the full frame but in effect the image quality is identical.

So personally am not going to bother with APSC unless I need more magnification and I am not in low light. For all the rest I will use full frame binned.

ProRes RAW

The A1 also provides its pixel binning mode in ProRes RAW and it is identical to the internal recording when the lens corrections are off. ProRes RAW does not have a concept of lens profile so you get all the lovely defect of your lens. To my horror e-mount leses have many defects, all are distorted and have significant amount of CA.

ProRes RAW vs Internal

In short unless you have a DSLR adapted lens with zero defects those aberrations are troublesome so with native glass am skipping ProRes RAW altogether.

4K with External Recorders

If you have a Ninja consistent to what Gerald Undone says you can get a scaled down version of 8K setting your HDMI output to Auto or 2160. Auto generates 4k60fps while 2160 gives you the same frame rate of your 8K.

Interestingly if you do not record to card the HDMI output goes back to what you get in internal recording. So in short you need to record 8K to card which means eventually overheating. It is unclear what subsampling is being output howeverthe image does look a bit cleaner.

8K vs 4K

There is no doubt that the 8K mode although only available up to 30 fps is superior however editing the 580 mbps HEVC files is not that easy.

I personally shoot in 4K so I am set on the full frame binned 4K but if you have the hardware to process and the screen to watch 8K is the way forward. Gerald Undone trick of the HDMI 4K while shooting also works but be careful with overheating.

Coming Soon

Next article will break down the codecs available with the A1.

Sony A1 : The One or Two Face?

I have been looking for a camera that would be a significant upgrade from my GH5M2 for some time and I have narrowed my options to two choices: the Sony A1 and the Canon R5. As the A1 underwater port system can use most of my glass I have recently acquired the A1.

Did I get the upgrade I was looking for? For photos I would say the answer has been an immediate yes due to the amazing autofocus and EVF of this camera and the burst rate. For me 15 fps is enough but the fact the A1 can trigger a flash with electronic shutter at 1/200 of a second is amazing. But I still like the mechanical shutter (unlike the Z9) and this goes to 1/400 which is also a first.

Let’s have a look at the A1 and where it stands at the end of 2022.

The Sony A1 was announced in January 2021 and was at that time the fastest, high resolution (>42 MP) full frame camera on the market. 

Capable of producing 20 fps continuous autofocus at staggering 50MP and 30 fps JPEG it still is the full frame camera producing the highest resolution at the highest frame rate as the Nikon Z9 has the same frame rate but lower sensor resolution.

As new cameras have come along we have seen some development especially on the video front and while the Sony A1 can produce ProRes RAW this is at half resolution (4230×2430) the Canon R5 is able to output 8192 x 4320.

Users have been curious on why the Canon R5 can do that while the A1 can’t and also why does the Z9 produce ProRes RAW internally at half resolution, so similar to the A1 and NRAW (that is likely not RAW) at full resolution?

Various tests on video show that both the Z9 and A1 outperform the Canon R5 in video on all formats.

Interestingly SNR improves 0.8 stops moving from 8K to 4K full frame which would not be possible if the camera was skipping pixels.

But of course neither the Z9 nor A1 can produce external ProRes RAW 8K and users have been screaming at Sony. 


I was quite suspicious of the fact that the Z9 can only record internal raw and I have noted that Nikon has pushed back on RED lawsuit on RAW recording and therefore I believe NRAW is actually demosaiced.

I looked at dpreview studio scene and compared those cameras and in addition added also the Panasonic SR1 to check the image quality.

You can see how all cameras are affected by false color artefacts, the A1 and Z9 much more than others.

Moire is not an issue

The other suspicious fact is that the A1 and Z9 produce ProRes RAW at half resolution. How can the camera produce RAW at half resolution with no false colour artefacts if the 2×2 cell is made of different colours?

If you follow mobile phone technology, you are familiar with the super high resolution claim of certain phones, this article on Sony semiconductors web page provides an insight

The actual pixels are arranged in cells of 4 of the same colour and to produce the high resolution image the pixels are re-mosaiced, which in turn could produce artefacts. This technology has been mainstream for at least 4 years.

If you look at this video you can see that ProRes RAW video no longer produces false colour artefacts but is prone to moire as the camera does not have a low pass filter.

Dpreview studio scene provides some additional insight looking at video grabs.

No false color in 4k video

Moire in 4k video due to low resolution generating aliasing

My conclusion is that the A1 as well as the Z9 are cheating. Unlike the Canon R5 they are based on a quad-bayer sensor cell and therefore will not offer the same color resolution at 1:1 pixel of the canon R5.

It has already been proven that the A7S3 has a quad bayer cell.

Measures like DxOMark color depth do not look at color errors so this will not be spotted but I believe the remosaic of pixels of the same colour is the issue here that is showing in the dpreview studio scene.

There has been additional debate then on why the A1 defaults to APSC mode when producing 4K video, this is counterintuitive however the APSC image does not have moire nor false colour.

If we carry on with the assumption that what I have written here is correct, we can have a look at the required bandwidth to read the sensor and produce video output at various resolution and frame rates

HVDepthFPSBandwidthRGB BandwidthSubsampled
Bandwidth Gbps for various video resolutions

Considering a readout at 12 bits we can see that the highest bandwidth is for the 8K and the 4k APSC mode as the other modes have less pixels even the 120 fps does not get to that bandwidth however required a faster sensor scan and is cropped

When the raw data goes in the image pipeline it is converted into RGB signal and here we can see that after subsampling the ASPC format has the highest data volume due to the 422 subsampling.

This in turn produces the least artefacts in fact it is quite resistant to moire as anti aliasing can be performed in camera using different techniques. So this is why APSC footage from the A1 is smoother but not necessarily sharper in fact the opposite.

A different current of thought may say no it is a full resolution classic bayer filter array which is then binned for 4k video however

  1. Such technology does not exist is not advertised there are no patents
  2. The remosaic of quad bayer sensor has been mainstream in mobile phones for years now and is done on chip

So my take is Sony is just leveraging mobile phone technology for the IMX610 in the A1 but I am open to the challenge.

For clarity as some readers seem not to understand I believe the camera has a total of 50 megapixels arranged in a quad bayer cell and goes to 12.5 in video 4K full frame combining pixels in 2×2 cells. There are phones on the market with 108 megapixels so this is nothing new.

The A1 is produced on the Exmor RS line which has been developed for mobile technology so no suprise the same investement is leveraged for cameras.

Many commercially available phones already implement the same features of the A1 see for example the specs of the Xiaomi12

Video Format Choice

The other question is then what to shoot now that we know or think we know the inner workings of the camera?

  1. 8K suffers from similar false colour artefacts of still images and 8k displays are rare it is only available in 4:2:0 subsampling due to bandwidth issues.
  2. APSC is cropped while the image has no defect this mode does not have a benefit on other cameras like the Panasonic GH6, it also does not support 120fps. Many other cameras offer cropped APSC 4k footage: you do not need an A1 if you want APSC video.
  3. UHD has moire in certain situations due to the lower resolution being out resolved by the lenses used and the lack of anti aliasing filter however it does offer the highest dynamic range and no false colour artefacts

My approach is to use UHD and if I have moire, use APSC. Moire is visible in the EVF so you can then mitigate it by switching to APSC only when required.

I have done a full analysis of the codecs and frames which I will post in a later article.

The other consideration is that I did not get a full frame camera to shoot it in APSC and in fact the A1 APSC also looks the same as my Panasonic GH5M2 and offers minimal benefit of DR and SNR due to the smaller size of the cropped area.

Now that I know (or think I know!) What may be behind the A1 limitations, am I disappointed? Actually I am not. I did not buy this camera for 8K, I have no ability to edit or display 8k but I wanted an upgrade to 4k and I can say the A1 holds video footage at 12800 ISO in slog3. I have yet to see any moire and prores raw 4k@60 is amazing quality, surely there is distortion and chromatic aberrations and vignetting but especially underwater or topside long lens this is not an issue. I am a bit disappointed by the codecs on card especially as HEVC does not have a 30 fps mode however overall the camera delivers an extremely pleasing image quality in 4K with outstanding clean colours using slog3/cine.gamut. If there is one thing that is weak is the IBIS.

If you are a purist and want the best image quality in full sensor should you look at the canon R5? This is where it gets interesting. I believe the R5 has a cleaner image however Canon is behind in terms of sensor technology so at the end when you look at real life images in terms of IQ and SNR I do not see the Canon taking an edge. What the Canon is better at is ergonomics, menu systems but not ultimately image quality despite all the things discussed here.


Despite all the cheating the A1 remains an amazing camera, it is small, it has many lens options and has the best underwater ports option and I do not regret my choice in fact I look forward to using this underwater. And finally, all of this just made me reflect on what a great camera the Panasonic GH5M2 is and I will keep it for some time until I am happy with all use cases.

A deep dive into inward lighting


It was Christmas 2018 and my wife Helen hands me over an envelope with an unexpected gift: two hours tuition with Alex Mustard (on land). Alex was travelling and I was busy with work so I only managed to get the session arranged in spring 2019. At that time I had just returned from a Hammerhead expedition in the Bahamas.

Prior to boarding the boat I did two days diving at Blue Heron bridge. I must admit shooting macro is not my favourite discipline but the shots were very disappointing: they all looked flat fish ID style images of various critters on the sea bed.

I showed the images to Alex who gave me a session on inward lighting for macro and we took several shots of coffee mugs or other widgets on his kitchen table. I wish I had had that session before going on that trip, but things never quite work as you would think.

Since then, I have done mostly wide angle with the occasional macro or fish portrait. I have  not really had the chance to give this technique a proper go. Inward lighting for macro requires to position your strobes behind the subject or in line with it and this is sometimes not exactly practical. The same technique, that had been initially introduced by Martin Edge, can be applied, with some changes, to close focus wide angle images.

Inward Lighting Diving in Italy

During this summer I had the opportunity to visit the Sorrento Peninsula again and dive with the friends at Punta Campanella Diving Centre. On day one of diving, the plan was to visit the dive site called Banco di Santa Croce, a group of offshore pinnacles ranging from 12 to 50 meters depth where there is abundance of groupers, rockfish, anthias occasional eagle rays and plenty of gorgonians. Usually, the visibility is terrible in the first meters and then clears up after the thermocline around 15 meters, however, on the day the visibility was pretty bad until around 30 meters. After a set of pretty deep gorgonian shots and seeing that the groupers were very un-cooperative, I went above the thermocline on the shallower pinnacle to see what I could shoot. Visibility was pretty bad with murky green water and a high number of suspended particles and I had an 8-15mm zoom fisheye on my Panasonic GH5M2 (similar to a Tokina lens on APSC). All of a sudden, I see a large “scorfano” (rockfish a variety of scorpion fish) swimming over the reef to change its resting location.

I take the first shot trying to minimise backscatter.

While the backscatter control worked reasonably well, I was faced with another fish ID style fish portrait with some ugly background: an overall anonymous shot, at least for my tastes. At this point I thought of giving inward lighting another go even though I had a zoom fisheye lens and was attempting some kind of fish portrait, with the ambient around the fish looking quite ugly.

I moved the strobes in line with the focal plane of the camera pointing right at the handles and started with the strobes wide, getting closer to the housing until I got the level of light I wanted.

First attempt was quite dark but the image started to look more interesting.

Eventually I got the light I wanted on the fish

now it was the time to make the image more interesting, trying to get some attitude out of this cooperative rockfish.

After a few attempts I managed to get the shot I wanted before the fish decided to swim away in a position no longer suitable for the composition I wanted.

Inward Rockfish

As you can see, I kept quite a low f/number I wanted to make sure only the fish head was sharp and limit the depth of field through the frame. This is a fisheye zoom at 15mm on micro four thirds so f/5.6 still has some depth of field but not too much. In my opinion the position of inward strobes works particularly well with subjects that have depth and are not flat on the focal plane of the camera like in this example. The lighting creates very strong shadows and texture that gives the fish an attitude.

A few days later I am on another dive site shooting wide angle again and I notice a large hermit crab on the seafloor. I try a crossed strobe shot and with my horror I notice many large particles backscattering over the black background.

I change the strobe position for inward lighting wide angle and place myself so I would get some blue water in the background that would reduce the contrast of the particles.

The first repositioning works well: I get strong shadows and light more from one side as I wanted.

Then the hermit decides to go for a wander, first it is repositioned so that I get a more frontal shot.

Then it literally legs it so I get a shot that for me is quite funny, as you can see a group of breams swimming in the other direction against the blue water.

Hermit on a run

This technique has resulted in a few shots that are above average certainly not outstanding but decisively different that bring out the character of both critters in my opinion.

Technical Explanation

I want to try and provide some details and technical explanation of what I think is happening with the strobe positioning and the subject.

This is a standard position for close up frontal shots.

From the diagram you can see that the area where the lens and the strobes beams overlap can generate backscatter. As the strobes are aligned with the lens the phenomena can be really strong, as demonstrated in the first hermit crab shot.

There are two issues with this positioning: first if the subject is sitting on the sea bed and you cannot get water behind you will see the background no matter how fast the shutter speed goes. Moreover If you try to close the aperture you will need to increase strobe power which will result in more backscatter.

This is a position that I use for inward lighting when I use a wide-angle lens.

You can notice a few things. First is that the subject is only hit by the edges of the beam and only from one side of the strobe so the intensity of the light is greatly reduced. This can be a challenge if you have a true fisheye as you will need to have really strong strobes as you place them further away from you to cover a wider area.

The second Is that the light beams are pointed to each other which in turn means strong shadows and a lot of texture on your subject.

Thirdly any suspended particles will reflect away from the incident angle of the lens resulting in attenuation, but of course not elimination, of backscatter effects.

Finally, the area behind the subject is not covered by the strobes at all and lends itself to either dark background or ambient light as in my two examples in this article.

Here are some additional tips on the strobes; settings. I personally use diffusers in this set up otherwise the position of the strobes needs to go forward and this can create backscatter at the edges or you could even see the strobes in the frame. Second you need several attempts to work out the distance vs power vs aperture equation. If you are interested in a dark background you need to increase the shutter speed as far as you can but on the other end control the aperture so you get the visual effect you want, in my case open so that the background is not sharp in focus. If you want to have the blue water background in the shot then you need to reduce the shutter speed and increase the aperture so you get plenty of depth of field to show as much as possible of the environment, this may result in your strobes working at full power just to paint your subject enough to standout. It takes a while to work out how to proceed and it is better to decide at the outset how you want to compose the shot so that you do not spend too much time doing trial and error as your subject may decide to leave the scene and interrupt the cooperation.

Another scorpionfsh this time from the Maldives

Post processing

I believe image editing is almost as important as making an image so I have included some post processing tips trying not to get too technical. To simplify, I will only say that the camera captures a lot more information than your image preview or your raw converter show when you import your images. Some of the inward lighting shots may look initially really dark, especially those at fast shutter speed. Do not despair if your camera has good ability to preserve colours in the shadows you still have an outstanding image potentially sitting there, so unless you did not get your focus right do not delete immediately images that appear underexposed.

The second suggestion is to avoid pressing the Auto button on your photo editing program because that will balance the exposure across the entire scene and take away any character from your image.

Generally inward images like the ones I have shot look fairly dark straight out of camera and you do not want to compensate exposure. My recommendation is to use a mask on the subject and adjust exposure very slightly and only if you got it very wrong. Instead pull up the whites and the highlights to make your subject stand out. I avoid any change of clarity, sharpening etc: the images have minimal, but selective, processing.

Another crucial consideration is that because you are using only the very edge of your strobe beams, the colour rendering index and warmth of your strobes may end up far away from normal conditions and using the white balance picker may result in strange effect as the lighting is not even across the frame. I recommend you increase the colour temperature and tint until you get something that you are happy with instead of going for recipes.

At the very end see if you want to clone out debris or some residual backscatter, this technique needs you to get very close to the subject and due to the strobe position backscatter on the focus point is minimised however it could still happen on the sides of the frame.

For what concerns cropping in a specific aspect ratio there is no hard and fast rule: I tend to shoot those close ups at 1:1 lately if the subject is somehow rounded but can go 16:9 if it is a fish sitting sideways on the seabed. Generally, I decide on the crop very early in the process but the good thing is that, as you will just make minor adjustment with masks on the subject, cropping will not change anything.

Closing notes

I have used a Panasonic GH5M2 with a Canon 8-15mm and Metabones smart adapter. My rig set up is described on this link. An APSC camera with a Tokina 10-17mm or a camera with a wet optics WWL-1 or similar or even WACP is adequate for shots like those described in this article. A full fisheye will have a much wider field of view and your subject may look very small or you may not be able to illuminate it correctly, a WAM (wide angle macro) solution may be better but that is an entirely different technique. I use a set of Sea and Sea YS-D2 despite the reputation for low reliability they have worked fine for everything I do until now. I am also convinced that shots like those described in this article can be taken with any camera type as long as you know how to and have adequate lenses and field craft, so if you have read up to now I recommend you give it a go and try and apply my suggestions adjusting the to your taste.

What did I learn during lockdown?

The Covid-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on the travel industry and consequentially on scuba diving, underwater photography and video.

I had to cancel my plans for the second part of 2020 and also for 2021 as test requirements and scarcity of flights made many destination very difficult to reach.

We are now in 2022 and things and the pandemic seems to have slowed down. In UK it is estimated that 96% of adults have antibodies. Travel has started again but there have been difficulties as airlines and hospitality struggle to hire and retain staff. A few European flights I have done for business trips were all severely delayed. Prices have gone up and frequency of connections dropped. It will take a while until we resume to pre-pandemic levels and perhaps we will never get back to 2019 and earlier.

During the long period without travel I found myself with my camera and lenses and unable to use most of my underwater housing and gear so I decided to expand my photography and videography interests.

What can I do with my equipment?

An underwater photographer/videographer will normally have an arsenal of fisheye or super wide lenses, macro lenses and in some cases standard zoom lenses.

You realise quite quickly that it is not exactly easy to put to use your fisheye lenses for land photography.

Most of wildlife shooting on land is carried out with long telephoto lenses. Wide rectilinear lenses are used for landscape but frankly extra wide are less used than others.

Shooting people involves focal lenghts that are normally used underwater for macro.

Macro photography is perhaps where there are more similarities between land and underwater photography. Long lenses are used in both cases and flash photography is also rather common on land for certain subjects (mostly plants and animals that move very little).

Another significant difference is driven by depth of field. High quality lenses for land use are generally f/2.8 and faster and wide lenses most cases f/4. Many times especially when shoooting portraits depth of field is limited and users try to get the best performance out of lenses which is generally in the f/5.6-f/8 interval.

The closer case to underwater photography is the sunny 16 rule which means to use f/16 to have plenty of depth of field for your shots. For macro you also need to have sufficient depth of field for your shots.

Generally venturing into other photography styles will mean investing in different lenses that fit the objectives.

When it comes to lighting underwater strobes are not fit for purpose for land use. A decent photographer knows that a basic flash will only give you flat lighting and potentially red eye effect so majority of land photography for portrait or studio uses off camera lighting with a variety of modifiers including umbrellas, soft boxes, continuous light and main powered flashes. Again if you decided to go in that direction you will need to buy equipment, the good news is that it is really unexpensive as there are high volumes so you can get flash, triggers etc with a few hundred pounds.

So in conclusion without any investment is relatively difficult to do anything with your underwater gear. As example here are some garden macro shots without flash.

B-Flight Mode

Using flash is esaier on things that do not move at all or move really slow


I have made several attemtps at shooting bees with flash and the colors are great however mortality of your shots is extremely high.

You can obviously try some abstracts with flower or go into flower photography but you need to be mindful that in bright light subject isolation and background rendering may be a challenge.


I am not a macro guy myself or a fish portrait person so for me garden macro was not particularly exciting as a discipline. In addition as the bugs do not really let you get close you get better result with a long tele photo lens and teleconverter or extension tubes. This again means investing in new kit.

Landscape Photography

I have to admit before Covid-19 I would sometimes take landscape but just really take a shot. Having more time on my hands and not being able to travel I joined a local camera club and also some local instagram and facebook groups for inspiration.

At one point I did a whole study of sunset phases, golden hour, twilight in the same spot

Pink Reflections @ Caldecotte
Caldecotte Reflections at Blue Hour

I guess the job of a landscape photographer is one of chasing light not just being on location and I learned how frustrating it can be to have the perfect conditions. As an illiterate land photographer I thought good weather is always good as there is plenty of light only to find out that too much light and a clear sky do not make good images.

Dark Sunset @ Willen Lake

I also found that is more interesting to have a person in a shot instead of just the landscape.

Wildlife Photography and Videography

The move from underwater to land wildlife is not a simple one. As I mentioned this is mostly a long lens job. A further complication is due to the fact that depending where you are there may not be many subjects available. Due to the destruction of habitats in most places local wildlife means predominantly birds.

Personally I do not prefer birds to other wildlife I find difficult to compose shots due to the speed they move and the related difficulties to take shots. I did however develop a soft spot for Red Kites

Kite over Clouds

This culminated with a visit to Gigrin farm in April 2022 when normal operations had resumed.

Due to the vicinity of Woburn Deer Park I found a real passion shooting Deer, especially Red Deer. A did an entire video project on this during 2021 and this is the result (shorter versions with selected scenes are available).

I have also taken some of my best images ever on the grounds of Woburn some of which I have sold on canvas 30×20.

Sunrise Ruts

I like deer as they are very attractive and they lend themselves to a variety of photos and videos. I got pretty good results at it, in fact very good results and I now run some workshops during the red deer mating seasons.

Nightscapes & the Milky Way

Clear skies are not good for daylight landscapes but are essential for shooting stars. During the period where there were travel restrictions I started venturing locally for spots to shoot the Milky Way at night.

I had the best results in Italy near my home town.

One still one moving

This culminated in a trip to Tenerife which led to some of my best shots to date.

The Star Gazer

This shot has done very well on facebook with something like 3.5k likes on specialised groups.

In terms of skills there is absolutely nothing in common with underwater imaging. Here you need fast lenses, a tripod and specialised devices like a star tracker. In addition there is a lot of standing around some warm clothes and even a dew prevention device for your lens are in order.

It is generally inexpensive to get into this kind of photography however due to light pollution you may not have any real chance where you are.


This is the genre I have explored the least. It requires additional lighting set up, which I now have, but especially interesting subjects to shoot which in general terms means models. Most models are for hire so this adds extra costs to your hobby. There are several other opportunities like re-enactors, cosplay shows, and others but I have not really explored those. This is an area under development.

Intentional Camera Movement

This includes blurred shots with pans as well as other technique like zoom etc. If you have read about Nick More here and elsewhere you know that those techniques can be used succesfully underwater. Personally although I like the technique for certain use it is definitely not my favourite and remains an area of future but not current focus.

What else?

One lesson that comes from trying different types of photography is that you do not know your camera as much as you think. During the periods of shooting on land I have probably learned more about the mechanics of a camera than I ever did when I was focussed on underwater.

The second lesson is about editing, there are some real photoshop wizards out there and many lessons and tools can be transported back to underwater imaging. I was not a photoshop user before the pandemic now I have the whole subscription set.

Final thoughts

Underwater imaging is an expensive hobby, what I have learned is that if you only do 3-4 trips a year your camera is really under leveraged. There are 365 days in a year and all of them are good to take some photos. Many items especially lenses can be bought on deals or second hand and there are many other ways to enjoy yourself.

I guess as of today I would class myself predominantly an outdoor photographer, indoors shots remain the minority and studio is not really something I do however I think the pandemic was a great boost to my imaging in general and I hope you find this article stimulating for you to try new things where you are as well as when you travel.

Few videos from the Red Sea Image Makers Trip

I only did 4 video dives during the trip and one of them was not really good. This is a short video of the other 3 plus the dolphin experience

Valeri did a much better job with his Sony camcorder in Gates housing and produced this outstanding HDR video

I think it was beneficial for him to be on the boat together as I saw his craft getting better and better during the trip.

The inside of the Thistlegorm are one of the highest quality video examples I have ever seen so well done Val!

I have been thinking if I should do this trip again in the future or switch to something different for example macro in the Philippine I am interested in hearing your views!

Diving Sorrento Peninsula 2022

It was time again to visit Gianluigi and all friends at Punta Campanella Diving in Massa Lubrense.

As I had already been in Egypt on a liveaboard I only did 4 dives:

  1. Banco di Santa croce
  2. Vervece
  3. Punta Campanella
  4. Mitigliano steps

The banco visibility was poor also at depth however I still managed to get a few interesting shots with inward lighting.

Inward Rockfish

Groupers were very shy but the anthias were performing

Deep Bommie

Consider that the anthias images are between 30 and 40 meters. I went there as I wanted the red gorgonian coral in the shots

The Vervece instead was a wonderful dive however the barracuda love to hang exactly on the thermocline resulting in hazy images


I could manage a good shot were you can see the surface staying right on the thermocline.

Vervece doppio senso

The second day had one of my favourite spots Punta Campanella conditions again difficult with limited visibility but plenty of options for interesting shots.


In addition to the cardinal fish in the cracks there was an interesting hermit crab that started legging it when I set the strobes for inward lighting.

Hermit on a run

At the surface I manage a few decent shots of jellyfish


I would have liked to go on the Isca caves however the divers were not experienced so we went to the steps of Mitigliano which is a great close up wide angle dive.


Corals are not too deep and there is a good variety of fish on top the cardinals in the cracks

Salp Uphill

The visibility was a bit better but the light was decent so I took a variety of shots of salp, mullets and damselfish

That’s all for Italy for 2022. I feel I need more dives to get the best but am quite happy considering the limited number I could do.

For sure shooting wide angle here is a challenge but I think the shots worked out ok

Challenges of high dynamic range underwater scenes

A recent discussion on wetpixel with regards to mirrorless cameras vs DSLR seemed to highlight that electronic viewfinders are a major limitation vs optical viewfinders in high dynamic range scenes.

In reality an optical viewfinder does not have dynamic range is just the projection of what the camera lens is seeing through a mirror while an electronic viewfinder is a small screen limited to the 10 stops of dynamic range of the camera jpeg engine.

So there is no doubt that in certain cases the eye and the brain do a better job than a screen to manage certain scenes however to say that this is a limitation that cannot be overcome is a real stretch especially as now most images are taken with mirrorless cameras and have high dynamic range.

During my last Red Sea adventure I spent almost an entire dive shooting sunbursts. Sunburst can be tricky this is an excerpt from Alex Mustard Underwater Photography Masterclass

“At depth the overexposure at the edge of the sun ball is only in the blue channel, which creates an ugly cyan halo around the sun.”

Other situations for ideal sunburst are calm waters which I did not really have during my trip.

So possibly I had the worst conditions and most challenging for my camera, as you know I shoot a Panasonic GH5M2 and the micro four third format is frequently labelled as having very low dynamic range.

During lockdown I have practiced a lot of landscape and night photography and many sunrise and sunsets and I have learnt that actually my camera has a lot to offer if I do not fully trust the exposure tools.

The camera lies to you

The image displayed in camera and in the EVF is an output of the JPEG photo setting of the camera and shows what the manufacturer believes it is an optimal image. RAW converter do exactly the same thing and apply corrections to the raw data to show what they think looks good as a starting point for editing.

Red – LR Default

This image taken at around 18 meters so fairly deep shows a moderately clipped sunball in what was not calm surface water and a fairly dark foreground despite the strobe fired on the coal.

This image is instead the camera RAW data very close to linear and without correction. Note the cyan sunball and the very dark foreground.

RAW Linear data

This does look really dark indeed and to be frank the camera sees a lot in the dark.

The important part though is that this image is not clipped in the highlights and the darks are not crushed either.

The image can therefore be rescued to produce a decent result.

Red – Edited

Is this image as pretty as one where the sun rays do a perfect star in calm shallow water? No.

Does it have an ugly sunball of death? No

Is it noisy grainy or lacks sharpness? Definitely not

Would you have taken this image if you believed the camera exposure settings? Probably not

How to take good high dynamic range images underwater with a mirrorless camera

There are a number of challenges to be overcome:

  1. On some cameras the EVF may get so dark that you can’t see any of the foreground
  2. The camera metering system reflects a jpeg not a raw image file
  3. The image review afterwards may also be incorrect
  4. You do not know how to edit such image to find out if it was clipped or not

Let’s take those challenges one by one.

Normally with a mirrorless camera if you try to expose so that the sunball is not clipped the display gets so dark that you can’t see the foreground unless you have a light.

Some cameras like mine have a metering mode called highlight weighted where the camera calculates exposure not on the middle grey but the highlights. This in turn allows us to calculate how much headroom is built in the exposure tool of the camera. I have calculated that for mine is 1 full stop. So the first step is to set your camera to the fastest shutter speed your flash can sync to (in my case 1/400) the lowest ISO (in my case 200) and the smallest aperture that does not go into diffraction (in my case f/10) and see if you can match that 1 stop overexposed and work from there with your aperture. Set the strobes to match your aperture in my case I set them to f/16 to start and then move to f/22 if needed if I am reasonably close otherwise I may go all the way to full power.

The second step is to switch back the camera to a normal multi metering mode and ignore entirely any warning of clipped highlights so you can compose the scene and shoot.

The jpeg review will show blinking highlights in abundance but you know that is not actually true.

Later in lightroom we apply the setting to remove the program bias and see if the scene was clipped

Lightroom develop mode

As you can see the scene is correctly exposed!

After some editing we are at what I consider a decent result

Adjusted Image

Here another example later in the day in another dive site an even more challenging backlit situation.

Buddy diving


There is no doubt that the eye and the brain can do an easier job in those challenging condition to frame the shot however any camera including a DSLR will lie to you when it comes to the image review so ultimately you can push your equipment much further than you think if you know how.

Wildlife photography made easy