Getting the best underwater colours for your 4K Sony RX100 Mark IV

It is not a mystery that even the new Mark IV version has issues with custom white balance.

The ergonomics have not changed and you need to go into photo mode to set custom white balance but generally underwater results are poor. Using filters is therefore a necessity also on the new 4K version.

RX100 Mark IV Video Behavior

The RX100 offers now a 4K 100 mbps mode and can use picture profiles.

I have used a modified version of PP6 that use the cine2 gamma curve, I have however changed the colour to the Pro mode and changed a number of other settings in my last video in Puerto Galera.

The water was green and murky but this gives you an idea of what you can get.

Filter Options and Wide Angle

Although the Nauticam WWL-1 is the best lens for the RX100 it does not take filters and therefore is not adequate for video.

In this review clip you can see the options available on the market.

In terms of wide angle you have two options for 4K:

  1. Inon UWL-H100
  2. Inon UWL-100

Both lenses work fine in 4K however the older UWL-100 achromat does vignette in photo mode.

The UWL-H100 offers a very wide field of view also in HD mode with no vignette and accepts the mangrove/deeproof filter.

This filters is loaded with magenta so I suggest adjusting the tint in the auto white balance mode to +2 green.

The UWL-100 works fine in 4K and is wider than the UWL-H100 however has only the M67 mount. If you have one of those lenses you can use the Ikelite 6442 filter. This filter required you to remove the rubber ring on the lens and does work quite well except has a yellow cast to it you can reduce by changing the tint to +2 blue and increasing also magenta to +1.

For flexibility purposes probably the UWL-H100 is better as it takes the bayonet but the UWL-100 is really wide and has a little less fringing. Some people do like the UR/PRO filters better.

I hope you find this post useful and good luck with getting the best colours from your Sony RX100 Mark IV

What does UHD Premium specification mean to 4K

The UHD alliance is a working group that includes a number of well known brands.

In the board are directors of the following major players:

  • Fox
  • Sony
  • Netflix
  • Panasonic
  • Dolby
  • Technicolor
  • Samsung
  • LG
  • Universal
  • Warner Bros
  • Walt Disney
  • Direct Tv

The members include companies like Sky, Amazon, Intel, Thx, Dts and others.

The key purpose is specifications mostly for high end use and the key pillars are:

  • High dynamic range video (SMPTE ST2084 EOTF)
  • Wide colour gamut (BT.2020)
  • 4K resolution
  •  10 bit colour depth

This is obviously a large improvement compared to the current specification of HD Video:

  • BT.709 colour
  • 1920×1080 Resolution
  • 8 bit colour

Probably the most interesting feature is high dynamic range video as the human eye is more sensitive to contrast than it is to colour and resolution although surely the 10bit colour depth will make a difference.

Currently all professional recorders that manage 4K use 10 bit colour but none uses the BT.2020 colour gamut and the dynamic range is left to the sensor quality and has no minimum specifications.

So what will UHD premium mean to us? Well currently not much!

The key is that UHD alliance has also stayed clear from the major issue for distribution that are the video codecs.

Currently HEVC or H.265 has got royalty challenges but is the most  efficient codec on the market and the widest in terms of diffusion in hardware.

To give an idea two minutes of 100 Mbps H.264 become 76.5 Mbps once you push the H.264 to the limit but the corresponding H.265 is only 13.6 Mbps only 18% of the size.

Google does not support HEVC and are distributing 4K using VP9 and H.264. From my tests VP9 is not as efficient as HEVC the same file came at 17 Mbps. The key issue of VP9 is playback that does not even work on a powerful home computer although some new Android TV have accelerated VP9 and so has the new Nvidia box.

Whilst this gets worked out it is likely that cameras will continue to record in H.264 and the key here is higher bitrate as H.264 is clearly inefficient with 4K.

If you are in the 4K space and you want to produce semipro or pro footage you need to have an external recorder working in Prores HQ or your device needs to be able to record higher than 100 Mbps.

Sony has just introduced the XQD memory cards that write 800 Mbps

This is potentially a way forward for higher bitrate recording as UHS 3 is limited to 240 Mbps and would only work with compressed footage.

Another thing to consider is that you need a pretty big Tv to notice UHD at the normal viewing distances we tend to watch.

Carlton Bale was on the scene few years ago when HD came about and the conclusion was you need 55″ or more at 8 feet to ‘see’ HD as your eyes can’t resolve more.

This distance becomes 120″ at 8 feet which is essentially the size of a projector screen.

Essentially UHD seems to be more for computer freaks watching clips very close to the screen that for the average user.

I did several test on my Tv with clips I had produced in 4K downscaled to HD and at my normal viewing distance I could not see any difference what so ever!

Essentially I have determined that 50 Mbps XAVC from the RX100 Mark IV looks actually better than 4K on my Tv.

I guess we will have to wait for HDR to see some real benefits meanwhile the clips from you tube look better simply because they have more information. There is a factor of 6x for UHD compared to HD and this shows a higher quality clip.

I don’t see a large future for UHD in TV broadcast it could die as 3D just did.


The painful quest of 4K Video

2015 has probably been the first year where consumer devices have taken the journey to 4K as even iPhones now can record at Ultra High Definition.

However there is still a very long way to get us to the level of standardisation of HD video and the war of the codecs has still to determine a winner.

As of January 2016 if we consider only digital cameras only three manufacturers produce 4K capable devices that can be housed for underwater use and those are Canon, Sony and Panasonic.

Specifically we have two compact cameras with fixed lenses, the Sony RX100 Mark IV and the Panasonic LX100, two micro four thirds the Panasonic GH4 and GX8 and three DSLR the Sony A7IIR and A7IIS and the Canon EOS-1D C that was in fact the first camera to record 4K video in 2013.

From a consumer point of view we are interested in a 4K device that can operate with wet lenses across the focal range and that is under the $5,000 mark including the housing so I will focus on the Micro Four Thirds and fixed lens compacts and exclude immediately the Panasonic LX100 that requires a port system to operate we are now left with 3 devices that today are the real options for 4K underwater video.

4K Digital Cameras for Underwater Use

  1. Panasonic GH4 with Panasonic 14-42mm II Mega OIS
  2. Panasonic GX8 with Panasonic 12-32mm Mega OIS
  3. Sony RX100 Mark IV

I have added the lenses of choice of each camera for convenience.

In 35mm terms the focal lengths offered by the 3 devices are:

Panasonic GH4 with 14-42mm : 35-105mm

Panasonic GX8 with 12-32mm: 31.2-83.2mm

Sony RX100 IV: 28-80mm

Wet lenses

Both Panasonic cameras revert to a traditional 35mm cameras when the 4K crop is applied. The wet lens of choice is therefore the old Inon UWL-100 with M67 thread. This is a lens with a magnification of 0.57077 that with the 14-42mm II Mega OIS and Macro Port 35 or the 12-32mm and Macro Port 29 performs very well without vignetting and offers zoom through the whole focal range. The same lens appears to work fine also with the Sony RX100 Mark IV but is almost border line in terms of vignetting and I will need to conduct further experiments for now we will refer to the Inon UWL-H100

Focal range with Inon UWL-100 / UWL-H100* (Sony)

Panasonic GH4+14-42 : 20-60mm

Panasonic GX8+12-32 : 18-48mm

Sony RX100 Mark IV : 17-48mm

You can see that the GX8 and the RX100 are virtually equivalent and the same holds true for macro with the GX8 and the RX100 offering same working distance and magnification. The GH4 is superior in this area due to the longer focal length after crop of 105mm. For me the most versatile wet lenses for macro remain the Inon UCL-165 despite the various Nauticam and Subsee options because you can cover all the working distances from 16cm to 8cm which is the sweet spot for macro work.

Unfortunately the level of magnification obtainable with the GX8 and RX100 is not great and really small subject will still look tiny in the frame. Obviously the use of the 14-42mm lens on the GX8 resolves all problems except the field of view with wet lens at wide end is now 21mm anyway not a huge issue.

I am still waiting for a proper review of the GX8 but in terms of 4K resolution I have been impressed with the Sony RX100 Mark IV that appears to be sharper than the GH4 and even the A7IIR.

4K formats

In terms of 4K recording all devices on the market use some form of H264 100 Mb/s codec Sony uses what they call XAVC S while Panasonic uses a standard Mp4 compatible wrapper. Sony codecs do not use B frames in their H264 implementation but this does not seem to affect quality that much.

So now that you have your 4K footage what do you do with it?

The first consideration is that all cameras record internally at 8 bit with 4:2:0 subsampling this means that colours are only recorded for 50% of the pixels and then interpolated. The implication is that color grading opporunites are limited and heavy manipulation should be avoided to avoid undesired effects such as banding.

This means custom white balance better with a filter is still very much needed for 4K.

In the Mac camp there are many consumer options for 4K editing including iMovie, Final Cut Pro X, Adobe Premiere Pro and for Windows you also add Sony Vegas, Avid composer and many more

S-logs or V-log are also not meaningful at 8 bits without external recording capabilities as grading will ruin the footage.

Workflow for Consumer Use on Mac

For the average home user on a Mac iMovie offers now decent functionality and imports and edits in native format all the clips produced by our selected cameras. iMovie also exports in Prores 422 which is ideal for storing your master copy after editing.

Unless you edit on a laptop or a machine with poor hardware there is no need to convert the footage in intermediate formats as most of GPU have H264 acceleration so your 4K workflow will look like this:

  1. Import into your 4k editor
  2. cut and edit sequence
  3. Perform minimal corrections to exposure and color
  4. Add some transitions
  5. Add music of voice over
  6. Export to Prores 422 or 422 HQ if available
  7. Compress with 3rd party software or plug in

Compression Headaches

Step 6 is particularly important as none of the above mentioned editors has good native export capabilities so you want to do that with another program. If we take for good what apple says Prores HQ is very rarely fooled by 4K footage at 737 Mb/s for 25p. Consindering that our footage was 4:2:0 to start with this means we need only 75% of that bandwidth or 552 Mb/s. As Prores 422 records at 492 Mb/s which is only 11% less than the required bandwidth so iMovie with the Prores export option is pretty good.

We now have our 492 Mb/s video with most likely an AAC audio what are we going to do with it?

This is where it gets really painful. If you have a 4K Tv you definitely want to watch your footage on it, today UHD Tv support the HEVC codec and more recently also the VP9 codec that google uses in YouTube however both those codecs have limited options for encoding and do not have any hardware acceleration support in your computer that will be used to compress the footage.

To make matters worse if you then share your footage online on YouTube this will be heavily re-compressed. I have done some analysis on some clips that I watch to find that 4K bandwidth is between 17 and 20 Mb/s in H264 and the files are not even encoded with CABAC to ensure they can be played on devices with limited hardware capabilities. In terms of web browser many now supports VP9 however hardware acceleration is lacking so it is likely that you will be watching H264 4K footage at 18 Mb/s when you connect to YouTube on your computer.

It is likely that the mp4 files that you can produce with handbrake or other tools are easily coded at 60-70 Mb/s so YouTube, as it does with HD footage, will introduce significant issues to your 4K videos.

Interestingly the 4K bandwidth is higher in terms of Bits/(Pixel*Frame):

  • 0.090 for 4K
  • 0.076 for 2K
  • 0.055 for HD

This would suggest that 4K videos are less compressed but on the other hand the compression is less efficient. 2K appears an interesting mix that still uses Cabac and 3 reference frames but is really a computer only option.

For who has access to an x264 encoder  this is a suggestion for 4K  encoding that does not kill your computer

Preset slower – modified

cabac=1 / ref=5 / deblock=1:0:0 / analyse=0x3:0x113 / me=umh / subme=9 / psy=1 / psy_rd=1.00:0.00 / mixed_ref=1 / me_range=16 / chroma_me=1 / trellis=2 / 8x8dct=1 / cqm=0 / deadzone=21,11 / fast_pskip=1 / chroma_qp_offset=-2 / threads=3 / sliced_threads=0 / nr=0 / decimate=1 / interlaced=0 / bluray_compat=0 / constrained_intra=0 / bframes=3 / b_pyramid=2 / b_adapt=2 / b_bias=0 / direct=3 / weightb=1 / open_gop=0 / weightp=2 / keyint=250 / keyint_min=25 / scenecut=40 / intra_refresh=0 / rc_lookahead=60 / rc=crf / mbtree=1 / crf=18.0 / qcomp=0.60 / qpmin=0 / qpmax=69 / qpstep=4 / ip_ratio=1.40 / aq=1:1.00

The options that differ are ref=5 otherwise we break the limit of level 5.1 and the decoder may have issues, and crf=18 from 23 to increase quality.

This H264 encoding can easily produce files around 1.4 Gb for just 3 minutes and will require playback on the device or USB disk attached or a good cat 5 ethernet network or solid wireless at at least 100 Mb/s effective speed.

It follows that H264 really is not the way forward at 32 Mb/s HEVC two pass or crf=23 in single pass you get files that are 20% or less of the size and work well if you have a 4K HEVC accelerated player like I do. At this bitrate is also very easy to stream over your wireless LAN even at mediocre quality. Unfortunately YouTube will reject your HEVC files and require H264 or VP9.

Google plot for 4K world domination

Google did not want to incur more royalties so they pushed out HEVC to use the open source VP9 as they did years ago with Vp8.

VP9 is at least in the Mac version very slow and seems fairly amateurish. They have been succesful with Android Tvs that have YouTube as a prime source of 4K content because the YouTube app does not work in 4k on Tv sets unless it can decode VP9. This is clearly only a commercial plot as all TVs can play H264 and YouTube wants to reach as many people as possible with 4K therefore keeping bandwidth below 20 Mb/s and accessible to the higher end of DSL connections not just fiber so that they can push their ads to the masses, however it also means that your video will look pretty pathetic on YouTube unless  you use a VP9 capable browser or Tv set or android to box to watch it.

At time of writing the only android box that can decode Vp9 is the Nvidia Shield Tv so if you want to watch YouTube 4K videos at 18 Mb/s Vp9 there is at least one choice.

Also the Roku and Kindle fire Tv support YouTube 4K but don’t have Kodi so I would not consider them











Nauticam WWL-1 with Macro Port 29 for Micro Four Thirds

Nauticam has recently released a new Macro port 29 that is shorter than the 35 and is designed for optimal compatibility with the following lenses and the WWL-1 Wet lens.

  1. Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 II R
  2. Panasonic Lumix G Vario 12-32mm f/3.5-5.6 ASPH Mega OIS
  3. Panasonic Lumix G X Vario Power Zoom 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 Power OIS

I have had the port and wet lens for a few days and those are my observations with the Panasonic lenses as I do not own the Olympus.

In general terms none of those lenses are amazing in terms of optical quality and only the Panasonic lenses are stabilized. This is not so important for still images but an advantage for video.

Photozone has tests of all the three lenses

Olympus Test

Panasonic Vario G X PZ Test

Panasonic 12-32 Test

The Panasonic power zoom is better than the Olympus however the lens has issue of vignetting and pretty high chromatic aberration. The Panasonic 12-32mm is surprisingly good and has similar resolution and less issues of fringing.

I attached the 29 Macro Port to my GX7 housing and took some tests shots in the sink with the WWL-1 petals touching the subject.

Panasonic G X 14-42 PZ Port 29
Panasonic G X 14-42 PZ Port 29

The image is wide and the corner sharpness is great with minimal to no chromatic aberrations.

The 12-32mm lens does not vignette at wide end and gives similar performance to the PZ lens with the benefit of increased field of view.

Panasonic 12-32mm Port 29
Panasonic 12-32mm Port 29

The shots are taken at f/4 ISO 1600.

For comparison I mounted the 4.33″ dome and the 8mm fisheye and took a similar shot.

8mm Fisheye
8mm Fisheye

The field of view is wider but of course distortion in the corners is very high to the point they become garbled.

Clearly if you do need a fisheye lens the 8mm is still the choice however the WWL-1 has the advantage that you can use the full zoom and a field of view of around 130° with a 28mm equivalent lens and around 135° with 24mm equivalent.

One thing that is interesting is the use of the 12-32mm with the Macro 29 port combined with the Panasonic GH4 in 4K.

The crop factor of 1.2x means that the focal length with this lens at 4K 16:9 is 31.38mm. This makes this port compatible with a number of flat wide angle lens of the old generation.

Specifically the old Inon UWL-100 would give a field of view of 100° equivalent to 18mm in 4K. The additional benefit is that you can use the Ikelite UR/PRO push on filter and the full zoom. At the tele end 83.7mm may be a bit short however the fact that you have a fully rectilinear lens and you can use a push on filter is a big advantage.

The Macro port 29 is also compatible in normal mode with the Inon UWL-H100 at 24mm equivalent as per image.

Inon UWL-H100 Port 29
Inon UWL-H100 Port 29

The field of view appears narrow as the lens can get closer to the subject compared to the WWL-1. The optical quality is excellent with minimum fringing.

In summary the Macro Port 29 is a must purchase for the following users:

  • 4K Panasonic GH4 video users
  • 4K Panasonic GX8 Users
  • HD and Still images micro four third users wanting a full wet lens set up

The 12-32mm lens also give almost the same field of view of the Panasonic 7-14mm with wide angle port at much lower cost when coupled with an Inon UWL-H100 allowing use at apertures of f/4 and f/5.6 with one to two stops advantages on the 7-14mm.

On a final note for the users of the Macro 35 port Nauticam has now released the zoom gear for the Panasonic 14-42mm II Mega OIS. This lens is better than all of those discussed in this post in terms of optical quality and it comes as kit lens on lower end Panasonic cameras. If you already have the Macro Port 35 and a kit lens or if you don’t have any lens or port this is definitely the best option in terms of cost and optical quality

Sony RX100 Mark IV Picture Profile Part 2

I have done some further research on the picture profiles and found out quite a bit of information.

In this post I will focus on the luminance and black gamma.


Luminance determines the range of black and white that are in the footage. People familiar with the Panasonic GH4 will know that you can set luminance fundamentally in two ranges: 0-255 and 16-235.

What this means that you have in the first case 256 grades of grey and the in the second 220. Some people confuse luminance with dynamic range but they are not the same thing.

You will somewhere find the definition of limited for 16-235 and full for 0-255 this is what it means.

In particular video broadcasting legal luminance is 16-235 so if you use a clip produced at 0-255 the extremes will be clipped this is anyway resolved as the levels are mediated when clips are produced for compatibility.

On the other hand if you use a clip with range 16-235 on a computer that has 0-255 luminance range it will look as lacking deep blacks or whites.

Ultimately you need to decide what is that you are shooting for and if your clips are going to be played on a computer that works in RGB or on a Tv that has YUV.

Profile Name Description Luminance Range Dynamic Range
PP1 Movie 0-255 < 7 stops
PP2 Still 0-255 < 7 stops
PP3 Video Natural 0-255 7 stops
PP4 Video Vivid 0-255 7 stops
PP5 Cine1 109% 0-255 10 stops
PP6 Cine2 100% 16-235 10 stops
PP7 S-log 0-255 13 stops

So the only profile that is broadcast compatible before editing is PP6 or the Cine2 gamma curve.

You can see that the dynamic range is the same for PP5 and PP6 so the fact that the camera records more grey levels does not really change things as the cine2 curve is smoother so it can accept higher input signals.

Black Gamma

In order to increase depth of blacks it is possible to use the black gamma setting. This has 2 controls, one is the Range Narrow, Medium, Wide and the other is the level that goes from -7 to +7

If you are going to grade your footage of and if you are going to use the video gammas PP1-PP4 you should not touch the black gammas otherwise you risk crushing the blacks.

However if you intend to use the cine profiles straight out of the camera you can tweak the black gammas accordingly.

The range determines where the setting will be effective.

Broadly speaking Narrow works on the first 10% of the signal, medium around 20% and wide around 30-35%.

What it means is that Narrow really works on the deeper blacks as you move to Wide you are altering also the grey and effectively changing the balance of the whole image.

More details here

For what concerns the level a positive value will move black towards grey and a negative value shift grey towards black.

There are two main uses of the black gamma: get deeper blacks without altering the overall contrast this is obtained using the Narrow setting and a value between -3 and -7 or use the Wide setting with negative values to give the whole image a darker tone.

A setting of Wide with level around -3 gives an overall darker tone to a Cinegamma if you don’t want to change the blacks in post and remains overall balanced.

Which leads to my current favorite profile that is a customised PP6 setting the parameters that I have changed are:

I have tested the various Gamma with backlight situation and I found that Cinema2 performs best on my Tv where I watch my clips.

I prefer Cine2 even on the computer to be frank but it is true that the blacks are a bit light.

Color mode: I have tried Cinema and Pro am now on Pro with Saturation +8

Black Gamma: Range Wide Level -7 as the cine2 mode is quite dull I like to push the blacks a little overall.

As the Sony RX100 Mark IV records at 8 bit my opinion is that using S-gamut is not worth without an external recorder. And to be honest the amount of grading possible is quite limited so my approach is to get the video as good as possible out of the camera.

This is a little test with my Kitten

Nauticam bayonet mount for wet lenses

Nauticam entered the wet lenses market with their SMC close up wet lens that was optimized for DSLR.

Then it released the CMC compact macro converter for compact cameras and micro four thirds and finally the Wet Wide Angle Lens I that is compatible with compacts, micro four thirds and also full frame cameras with 28mm equivalent lens.

Up to now all lenses were using the traditional M67 mount as most of the lenses, even the close up ones, are pretty heavy this means going for the dive with the same lens. Nauticam has developed the flip diopter adapter for flat ports to overcome this issue.

Flip Diopter on Nauticam RX100 IV
Flip Diopter on Nauticam RX100 IV

The flip diopter is a good solution for micro four thirds and DSLR but looks rather cumbersome on compacts as the image shows.

I asked Nauticam for a bayonet adapter and specifically if they could develop something for the Inon LD bayonet system that so far has been the reference for wet lenses for compacts and micro four thirds cameras.

LD mount converter on RX100 IV
LD mount converter on RX100 IV

Edward told me that due to the fact that the WWL-1 lens rear element is so large the Inon LD system was not an option so they went off and developed their own system.

M67 bayonet mount converter
M67 bayonet mount converter

I would like to thank Nauticam again for making those parts available before general availability.

Looking a bit closer to it you can see that due to the specific construction with two concentric rings you need a special tool to apply the adapter on the port.

M67 bayonet mount converter The large item is to attache the mount to the port
M67 bayonet mount converter
The large item is to attache the mount to the port

Obviously as the Nauticam lenses use an M67 thread new adapter needed to be developed.

Mount converter for CMC/SMC
Mount converter for CMC/SMC

Nauticam does not use ABS plastic and uses aluminum for all their parts.

Now that the items have a bayonet adapter there is a need for a lens holder to put on the arms.

Lens holder looks too big for a 5" arm segment
Lens holder looks too big for a 5″ arm segment

The lens holder is too big for a standard 5″ segment but looks in proportion with a longer segment.

Lens holder on 8" arm segment
Lens holder on 8″ arm segment

The adapter is larger than the LD mount and a bit big for compacts to the point that even with a tray the adapter tips the rig back.

Another challenge is that this system is designed for Nauticam lens that have protruding rear element so when used with standard lenses there is a gap between the port and the wet lens that can be counter productive, not the end of the world and frankly the Inon system has the same problem. This however means that if you wanted to use this system with a different wide angle wet lens this would be suboptimal.

I am waiting for Nauticam to ship me back the WWL-1 so I can show how that lens performs on this system.

Another observation of course is that if you use this system for wide angle the super heavy WWL-1 and the fact that the adapter only works on a normal segment means your rig will be very heavy in water. I am going to discuss with Nauticam the possibility to have the adapter on a float arm however their carbon arms do not have any mounting point to be used.

Stay tuned for a full review of this adapter with the new 29 macro port that looks very promising for video.

Picture Profiles for the new RX100 and A7 Cameras

The new cameras in the RX100 and A7 series can record 4K video internally but what is more important come with significant enhancements for video shooters.

Probably the most important feature is the availability of picture profiles that have a number of presets that can be further customized by the user.

There are many forums on the internet with custom setting to try to extract cine like look from Panasonic GH4 clips but all in all we can say that the controls in a still camera have been quite limited so far.

The new software that comes with the RX100 and A7 is a real step forward in this respect and contains all characteristics and functionality previously only present on Sony professional and semi professional video cameras.


The Seven Presets

The starting point of using a picture profile is to find one that we like as a starting point for further customization; the new Sony cameras have 7 profiles already loaded with example settings. The profiles have many characteristics that can be configured but probably the most important is the shape of the gamma curve because it also determines the minimum ISO and the availability of other features.

Profile Name Description Minimum ISO Knee Mode
PP1 Movie 125 Auto/Manual
PP2 Still 125 Manual Only
PP3 Video Natural 200 Auto/Manual
PP4 Video Vivid 200 Auto/Manual
PP5 Cine1 109% 200 Manual Only
PP6 Cine2 100% 200 Manual Only
PP7 S-log 1600 Manual Only

The descriptions above are my personal short description as the user guide is quite confusing.

Profiles PP1 to PP5 are usable straight from the camera, PP6 is optimized for editing and PP7 can’t be used without editing.


Standard Profiles

The profile PP1 and PP2 emulate the camera behavior in movie and still mode in terms of contrast and saturation. The main difference between the two is that the Still mode has stronger contrast and saturation than movie. Both use a minimum ISO of 125 and they allow customization of the standard camera modes.

PP1 Movie
PP1 Movie

Within a profile you have access to controls for color and sharpness at much granular detail that you have with the camera in normal mode. For example the saturation slider goes from -32 to +32 and the sharpness can be completely controlled manually. Colour depth is available in the range -7 to +7 for the whole RGCCYM palette. The customization of those controls lets you have the colours you want off the camera this can be particularly important to people looking for a specific look of certain colors typically red and blue.

PP2 Still
PP2 Still

For a complete description see this link:


Another feature that is incremental to the normal movie mode is the knee setting. The knee is particularly useful with highlights and with back lit shots. What it does it to compress the highlights within the usable signal range.

Knee Point and Slope
Knee Point and Slope



The knee is a way for those who like video look footage to capture more highlights and avoid hard clipping of back lit images.


Video Profiles

The profiles PP3 and PP4 use the ITU709 gamma curve that is the standard for high definition video television. The gamma curve has a low light gain of 4.5 dB and for this reason the minimum ISO is 200.

The video profiles bring substantial increase in  both shadows and highlights to the image compared to the standard profiles.

PP3 ITU709
PP3 Video Natural

The difference between those two profiles is the selection of the color mode. The PP3 profile has a Pro colour mode that the manual says ‘it is similar to professional Sony broadcast cameras’ the PP4 instead has an ITU709 Matrix colour mode.

PP4 Video Vivid
PP4 Video Vivid

What it means is that the Pro colour is slightly below the standard saturation whilst the ITU709 Matrix is extremely saturated looking like the Tv program that go these days. Both settings allow usage of the knee setting in auto and manual mode. The idea is to restore the highlights and make the footage look less harsh. The issue is of course that this has only effect on the highlights and not on the shadows.


Cine Profiles

The profiles PP5 and PP6 use the two different Cine gamma curves one is limited at 109% and the other at 100%.

Gamma curves
Gamma curves

Those are the official descriptions:

Cine1: Softens the contrast in darker image areas and emphasizes gradation changes in lighter image areas, producing a subdued tone overall (equivalent to HG4609G33). Gamma curve that obtains a dynamic range of 460% when the exposure is adjusted to 33% video output with 18% reflectance gray. The maximum value of video output is 109%.

Images shot with this gamma can be used without grading, but since the images have smooth gradation characteristics, this can be used to grade and finalize the viewed image in the post-production process.

PP5 Cine1
PP5 Cine1 109%

Cine 2: Similar results to [Cine1] but optimized for editing with up to 100% video signal (equivalent to HG4600G30). Gamma curve that obtains a dynamic range of 460% when the exposure is adjusted to 30% video output with 18% reflectance gray. The maximum value of video output is 100%.

PP2 Cine2 100%
PP2 Cine2 100%

Both curves are cine like and therefore do not use the knee function by default this is because a cine gamma curve is already clipping at much higher signal levels. The Cine2 curve has less contrast than Cine1 and is limited to 100% as opposed to the standard 109% so it is optimized for editing and the footage will lack whites and look fairly grey.

Practically the cine profile achieve a higher dynamic range using a smoother curve, this compares to the video profiles where the curve is pretty much the same until the highlights get compressed using the knee function.


The PP7 profile is for S-log2, this has the highest dynamic range but the minimum ISO is 1600, the footage looks really bland out of the camera but this can be really enhanced through editing to bring out all the details.

PP7 s-log2
PP7 s-log2


My Take on the Picture Profiles
I think the whole cinema like video is a very overrated subject for underwater use. An acid test to understand where you stand is your own TV. If you use the picture settings Vivid or Standard then you are a video like person, waste no time pursuing cinema like look as in the editing you will effectively bring it back and eliminate all the detail you capture by increasing contrast and saturation.

If instead your TV is set to Cinema or is even calibrated then you are a Cine like person.

Personally I think S-log2 for underwater use at 100 mbps is a total waste of time and it is only worth with external recorders. The bitrate is too low to capture that amount of detail and resist extensive grading and actually shooting at 1600 is pretty difficult and requires ND filters (that the RX100 has) to perform decently.

You can take still shots with the picture profile so the first thing to do is to take a few pictures and see what image you like the most, then you can start tweaking.

I found myself to like the cine settings in terms of contrast but I find then too bland in color so I have settled for +20 saturation right now.

Between Cine1 and Cine2 is quite difficult to choose because although Cine2 is in theory optimized for editing actually it looks pretty good straight from the camera for my liking. I particularly like the fact that the highlights almost never clip with this setting even in harsh conditions. It is possible to mix the Cine profiles with the Pro color mode but I found that using saturation was giving the same result.

PP5 Saturation +20
PP5 Saturation +20
PP6 Saturation +20
PP6 Saturation +20


Detail setting (aka Sharpness)

The last feature of the RX100 and A7 new controls is the fine tuning of the sharpness setting. I find that the default works pretty well except at high ISO where you want to start adjusting slightly the behavior.

The full guide is here

But it takes a bit of time to understand the settings.

The starting point for me is the crispening setting that in perfect Sony tradition means exactly the opposite of what you would think. So a setting of +7 means actually limit the sharpening on speckles and noise where a clear shape can’t be detected. Once you set crispening to the max and you shoot at high ISO you see how it reduces the noise. However the issue is that now the sharpness has also reduced so in order to restore the effect you go back to the total level of detail and set it to 7. Once you do that you find out that now the sharpening applied correctly is actually excessive so the limit setting effectively clips the amount of sharpening applied to the edges I use this at 3, as this results in a reduction of highlights sharpening (glass reflecting objects look dull) I then set the highlight detail to +2. After I did all of that the end result was very similar to the standard setting and a bit softer on the edges, practically it was only better at very high ISO so I went back to the original setting.



Leak Sentinel V4 and Vivid Housing Vacuum Valves

A few weeks ago I was trying to buy a second hand Nauticam GH4 housing with the camera and I thought I could have recycled the valve on the GX7 housing. However I did not manage to take it off, even using the tool provided the valve would not come off.

Bare Vacuum Valve

The prospect of buying another valve did not sound particularly appealing so I tried to work out if there were some basic options out there and got in touch with vivid housings.

Left Leak Sentinel V4 Right M14 Vacuum Valve


I wanted to find out if it was possible to use the leak sentinel that I still had as a dumb valve. I was also told that is possible to order the v4 circuit board for your leak sentinel v3 for €50. But I also noticed that there was a valve only option for €75. After a few discussions it turns out that is possible to order the vacuum valve (without circuit board) and the pump for €95 including shipping. This sounded quite appealing.

Unfortunately the valve was stopped at customs and it was dented disassembled and put back together damaging the o’ring plus my prospective seller for the GH4 rig had gone away. So in order to test if the valve was still working I used it with the M16 adapter that came with the leak sentinel v3 on the LX100 housing I have on loan that thankfully I have yet to return.

It works a treat! I posted a quick video review on my channel

Leak Sentinel v4 Updated Review

Vivid housing have taken on board my suggestions and the Leak Sentinel V4 comes with temperature compensation and also a very useful overnight mode. You an pressurize the housing and switch off the circuit if you prepare the rig overnight and then put it back on again. This is a clear advantage over other systems where the switch can only be accessed opening the housing. Another benefit is that if you have to change a port you also don’t need to fully open the housing.

I tested the leak sentinel v4 in parallel with the Nauticam system and generally worked well but there still some sensitivity having the sensor outside the housing so I suggest giving an extra stroke once vacuum is reached for safety otherwise the indicator may start blinking. Another useful feature is the battery warning indicator.

Frankly if you have a housing already equipped with a circuit and an indicator like the nauticam system it is likely you will only get the valve, after all the system in the housing has also a moisture sensor with an audible alarm. But if you have a housing without electronics the leak sentinel is a very cost effective option.

A word of warning as the circuit board is inside the valve care must be taken to have completely dry hands and dry environment when the valve is depressurised otherwise humidity can get into the PCB and make it fail.

The leak sentinel v4 costs €200 including shipping worldwide.

Both products are sold by vivid housings

For clarity I received no benefit or commission on any of my review and I remain vendor independent!

Best Settings for 4K video with the Panasonic DMC-LX100

There is no doubt that the Panasonic LX100 is a very capable camera and has a great 4K mode that works great especially at the wide end. In this post we will look at the settings that in my opinion maximize the camera features and have the best ergonomics for shooting underwater and actually also on land for most.

There is quite a bit of confusion between still image settings and movie settings and if your objective is to shoot video I recommend saving all the settings below or your preferred choice in a custom memory. The LX100 has 3 custom memory so you can save your settings for movie, stills and something else. Note that due to the absence of mode dials aperture, shutter and exposure are not saved so check you have the right settings before starting your recordings.

Movie Menu

Photo Style: I tend to leave this on the standard setting. Some users like to define a custom setting with sharpening of -2 I don’t think this is necessary. Likewise noise reduction is fine out of the box

4K Photo: I leave this option off as I want to shoot in 24p, setting it on will force the camera in 25/30p mode.

Rec Format: mp4

Rec Quality: 4K 24p I like the cinematic movie but also want to extract the maximum quality from the image

AFS/AFF/AFC: AFS single focus at the beginning of the scene

Picture Mode: setting not relevant in 4K

Continuous AF: set to OFF to prevent the camera to hunt focus especially underwater. If used on land this may be set to ON

Metering Mode: I tend to use centered weighted average for macro and multi metering for wide angle.

Highlight/Shadow: this is a very powerful control but I leave it to default

i.Dynamic: set to OFF to avoid unpredictable artifacts

i.Resolution: set to OFF the camera is very sharp no need for this

i.Zoom: set to ON due to the limited focal range it is important to allow for some extended zoom although there is some quality loss especially at high ISO. It works pretty well on the first notch

Digital Zoom: set to OFF the digital zoom looses too much quality

Mic settings: all left default

Wind cut: auto

Custom Settings Menu

Silent Mode: can be set on if you are working with wildlife on land

AF/AE lock: set to AE lock, as we have disabled continuous focus and we keep the focus at the beginning of the scene there is no need for AF lock in video. AE lock allows you to lock exposure when entering caves and wanting to keep a natural light without abrupt changes in exposure

AE/AF lock hold set to on so that the exposure lock is released only when the button is pressed again.

Shutter AF: ON we want to focus when we press the shutter at the beginning of the scene

Half Press Release, Quick AF, Eye sensor AF: all left to OFF

Pinpoint AF time: set to MID

Pinpoint AF display: picture in picture

AF assisted lamp: off

Direct Focus Area: set to OFF otherwise moving the cursor will override other buttons

Focus/Release Priority: irrelevant in movie mode

AF+MF: this allows for fine tuning with manual focus if the shutter is half pressed can be useful if the camera struggles to focus

MF Assist: focus

MF Assist display: PIP

MF Guide: ON

Peaking: ON your preference of color and level. I find the defaults to work fine some people prefer orange.

Histogram: OFF

Guide Line: rule of thirds

Highlight: irrelevant for video

Zebra: I use zebra 2 with 100% setting to just show me overexposed areas.

Monochrome live view: OFF

Constant Preview: OFF

Expo Meter: ON

Dial Guide: ON

LVF/Monitor Display: set default

Info display: ON

Rec Area: Movie, this settings makes the picture format lever redundant if you shoot videos so you don’t need to set the dial to 16:9.

Remaining Display: movie (this is only useful at the end of the memory card)

Fn button set: For underwater use F1-Set record area F2-default(Wireless) F3-Custom memory settings

Zoom Lever: I prefer to move in steps

Control Ring: defauls

Zoom Resume; OFF very important if you have the LX100 in the short port and accidentally you zoom too much leaving this to on can compromise your dive

Q.Menu: preset

iA button: default

Video Button: leave to On

Eye Sensor: LVF Monitor Switch: Mon

Custom Menu

All settings default except

Menu Resume: set to ON

Focus Area: 1 Area recommended for underwater use alternatively pinpoint for macro

Recommended Shooting Settings

Wide Angle

As discussed I prefer 24p and therefore I leave the aperture dial to auto and the ISO setting to auto too for wide angle. Generally the camera will operate prioritizing a low ISO to a small aperture and if you touch the aperture you end up in manual exposure that may be a possibility. Shutter dial on 1/60 with shutter speed reduced to 1/50 this gives plenty to play with in terms of aperture and in bright scenes the aperture will quickly go above f/8. The focus will be fixed as you set it at the beginning of the scene however if you need to refocus you can half-press the shutter and the camera will re-focus.


For macro other considerations on depth of field apply so you need to get going with the aperture until you get a decent focus, consider that the camera does not follow any rules so in effect you will set the shutter to 1/50 and then play with the ISO until you reach the desired exposure. As you will be shooting macro with lights this should not pose a large issue. If your subject is in the center of the frame use centered weighted average metering if not you need to be careful here is where the zebra control comes very useful. In general is better to avoid under exposure  and the zebra can help to ensure you prime subject is exposed correctly. For what concerns focus here you can try auto+manual as a starting point and then fine tune. Depth of field is limited so once you lose the focus it may be worth stopping and starting again instead of trying to refocus.

You can also keep the focus constant and move the camera back and forth.

I hope you find those settings useful let me know how you get on.

Nauticam NA-LX100 4K Video Review

Following the previous review that was dedicated to still images we now go into the subject of 4K video with the Panasonic LX100 and related Nauticam LX-100.

Currently there are only two compact cameras that produce 4K video the Sony RX100 and the Panasonic LX100.

The housing for the Sony RX100 has a traditional M67 port whilst the LX100 uses the N50 compact port system.

This means you can use all your wet lenses with the RX100 without specific adapters. The LX100 has however a number of benefits.

This table compares the field of view of the two cameras in 4K video mode.

4K Horizontal FOV Vertical FOV Diagonal FOV Sensor width 35mm 3:2
26.00 71.90 44.40 79.50 15.80 23.86
81.00 26.20 14.90 29.90 15.80 74.40
4K Horizontal FOV Vertical FOV Diagonal FOV Sensor width 35mm 3:2
28.00 67.90 41.50 75.40 11.85 26.73
80.00 26.00 14.80 29.60 11.85 76.37

When the camera shoots in 4K mode the focal length remains the same however the camera uses a smaller part of the sensor. A normal micro four third sensor measures 17.3×12 mm whilst the 1″ sensor of the RX100 is 13.2×8.8 mm. Note that the LX100 does not use the whole sensor due to the multi aspect format that keeps the diagonal field of view unchanged regardless of the image format.

What we can see in the LX100 table is that although the focal length in 4K is 26mm the horizontal field of view is the same of a full frame camera with a lens of 23.86mm this means the field of view in 4K should be slightly wider than a picture taken by the LX100 in 4:3 format.

I put the camera on a tripod and took two sample shots, this is the first at 24mm in 4:3 format that I then cropped to 16:9.

4:3 Crop to 16:9
4:3 Crop to 16:9

This other shot is from exactly the same position taken extracting a 4K frame from a small video.

4K Photo 16:9
4K Photo 16:9

As stated the horizontal dimension is just a few mm wider in 4K 16:9.

What this means is that this is the same that any normal camera with a 24mm lens that then is cropped to movie format in terms of field of view.

The Sony RX100 does not have a multi aspect sensor and therefore the horizontal field of view drops more.

With the short port on the LX100 using a wet lens like the Inon UWL-H100 we can achieve more than 97° horizontal which is very wide and zoom all the way to 79° and if we use a wetmate or the mini dome cover the other range between 72° and 50°.

Practically the LX100 with wet lenses and wetmate or minidome gives you access to focal lengths between 15.5-21mm and again 24-35mm is like having an 8-18mm lens on a micro four third which is good for whale sharks and mantas this is even wider than the 7-14mm lens on a Panasonic GH4 in 4K and the LX100 has a (weak) optical stabiliser on the lens.

The RX100 mark IV instead can only cover between 96° and 90° before the wet lens stops working properly and we jump to 68° if using a wetmate.

UWL-H100 Flat Test Cards
UWL-H100 Flat Test Cards

This shot taken at around 15cm shows a nearly rectilinear and very wide image.

In short if you are after some super wide angle in 4K the LX100 is definitely the way to go.

From an ergonomic point of view I shoot video in shutter priority and let the camera work out ISO and aperture, this is relatively easy to do with the LX100 although the absence of custom memory modes on a mode dial is painful.

A control that can be quite useful due to the tendency of the LX100 to go focus hunting is to set the ae/af lock button to af-on. This requires the shutter to be set in release priority with this control you can use manual focus and force the LX100 to refocus when you hit the af-lock. This is a very useful feature.

Update 28 September the method described to fight focus hunting does not work in 4K. There is going to be another post with the best settings for 4K video for the LX100.

For what concerns macro both the LX100 and RX100 present their challenges due to the short zoom lens, the LX100 more so due to the horrible rectangular port. It can be argued that you can’t shoot wide and macro with the LX100 whilst you can do that with the RX100 however the strength of the LX100 is certainly in its very wide lens and the short port that combined with a flat wide angle lens can produce an extremely wide field of view able to cover practically almost any wide angle scene.

For macro the GH4 and upcoming GX8 are probably going to be better placed due to the higher crop factor giving focal lengths in excess of 100mm using the 14-42mm lenses.

If you want to get into 4K video and your focus is primarily wide angle the LX100 is an excellent device.

The WWL-1 on a Nauticam LX100
The WWL-1 on a Nauticam LX100


Tip & Tricks for Compact Cameras Users