Tag Archives: Underwater Photography

Trip Baia di Napoli and Sorrento Peninsula

There is no doubt that until a Covid-19 vaccine is widespread our travel plans have to adjust to the new conditions. As of today 2 August 2020 most of our favourite destinations are still in the no go list and are not covered by travel insurance.

The latest list of countries and territories published by the British FCO does not include Egypt, Indonesia, Philippines and no countries in South America although it does have many Caribbean destinations.

With the situation evolving fast and the imminent prospect of tighter lock down as we go towards winter many people would not travel long haul anyway to avoid risks of quarantine or possible issues coming back to their home country. So for now, many of us will travel more locally. We have seen lots of new underwater photographs taken locally in British Waters but there is no doubt this is not out of choice and most people would rather be elsewhere.

After the postponement of my Red Sea live-aboard to 2021 I have been invited to the Italian Nauticam days in Italy in the stunning location of Napoli and Sorrento and coast. I am from the same region and all my diving training has been abroad so I am guilty of not having tried the local diving until now. If you don’t want to read the whole article the summary is that the diving is great and combined with the natural beauty of the area, the warmth of the local and the food and drink there is probably no better alternative for diving safe in Covid-19 times in Europe right now. I am sure there are equally stunning places in Liguria and some of the Sicilian or Tuscany locations however the Penisola Sorrentina is very hard to beat when you consider the other elements. Please get in touch if you want to dive the area as I am planning a trip mid September 2020.

The Diving Centre and Location

I used Punta Subaia and Punta Campanella Diving centre two long standing operations on the coast. The first is located in Bacoli north of Naples and the second is in Massa Lubrense just past Sorrento. Bacoli is Naples local beach so gets more local traffic while the other location is more touristic in nature with a good ratio of foreigners: during my stay there were English, German, French, Swiss and Dutch on the dives.

I used a 5mm wetsuit with a 3mm hooded vest and a thermal top under and was fine. Locals dive with a 7/5mm semidry suit.

Diving is done using 7.5 meters RIBs that can take up to 8 divers on a double tank or 12 on a single tank dive. Covid-19 procedures are in place and face masks are not mandatory outdoors in Italy however spacing on the RIB is challenging so you have checks and declarations to fill in. Some people wear face masks on the boat too is entirely up to you.

1 meter distance on the boat is possible

Journey time to the dive sites is 5 minutes in Baia while in Punta Campanell it can be up to half hour and the scenery is amazing as Capri is just in front of the coast and the landscape is jut breathtaking.

Under those cracks there are frequently underwater caves at shallow depth

If there is one thing that I did not like is that in the morning there was not a systematic double tank excursion so sometimes the day would finish at 6 pm with only 3 dives done. Crew are very helpful and 15 litres tanks are included at no extra so in all cases I came up because I reached the 1 hour limit still having plenty of air.

Divers getting ready to enter the water on a coastal dive

I booked a double room with single occupancy at €80 per night B&B 2 minutes walk to the dive centre. Food and drinks with wine runs at €50 or less per day and is glorious!

Spaghetti with clams will cost you €13

Underwater Photography

If you want to have an idea of the critters in the area I would recommend the book Into the Mirror from Mimmo Roscigno ISBN: 9788890966804 is only in Italian but it is a typical coffe table book the images are simply amazing.

For wide angle a good sample is on Punta Campanella Dive Center website, also look for photographers Marco Gargiulo that is local of the area. Other photographers like Franco Banfi have also been here for workshops. So there has been some fame but mostly limited to Italian speaking photographers, this is a shame as the staff speaks English and this is a photo friendly operation.

Subaia

I went for this trip with a selection of wide angle lenses, I had been told by Pietro Cremone about the underwater archeology park so I packed a rectilinear wide angle in order to avoid distortion.

Dives in Subaia are typically 1 hour long max by law at depth of 5 meters.

Dive site maps are placed underwater however you need to dive with an autorized guide

The dives have to be done with an expert guide as the mosaics are normally hidden to protect from the agents and the water.

Edoardo Ruspantini clears the debris to show the underlying Mosaic
Delfino
The Dolphin Mosaic

There are also replica statues that are good subjects, the originals are in the Napoli Museum.

Goddess of Men
Goddess of Men
Where is my hand

There are many villas and it is impossible to cover the grounds in two dives however I had planned to move to the second location so I drove two hours to Massa Lubrense on the night.

Punta Campanella

Here the diving is about fish and caves. You have a combination of close up subjects and wide angle. I took by zoom fisheye with me so I focussed on wide angle. Sea life includes plenty of Anthias and Damsel, Snappers, large groupers, eagle rays, breams, bass there is a lot of fish as the area has been a protected marine park for more than 20 years now. I was not expecting this abundance, there is also a resident shoal of Barracudas 1000+ strong specimen that is in shallow water at one of the sites. Due to limited processing power I have not yet created a 4K video however I took plenty of shots. The whole album is on flickr. I hereby include some key shots.

Medusa
Medusa
Diving Penisola Sorrentina 2020
Red Gorgonia
Ambush photo
Grouper
Behind the Mask
The Mask
Barracudas
Barracudas
Diver going through Scoglio a Penna
Caves
Eagle Ray
Eagle Ray

Wrap Up

I was frankly surprised by the sheer abundance of photo opportunities and I will be always taking my equipment whenever I go back to Italy in the summer. There are so many positives to the location:

  • Great photo opportunities
  • Well organised dive operation English speaking and photo friendly
  • Stunning location also for non divers
  • Amazing food
  • Fantastic people
  • Easy to reach from UK and other EU countries
  • Covid-19 procedures in place safe location with prime health system

I am so impressed by the location that I will be back and in fact I am planning a photo trip the week of 14 or 21 September, with the following itinerary:

  • Sunday arrival dinner with local photographers to have a taste of the area
  • Monday to Friday double tank morning dive, afternoon optional 3rd dive or sightseeing
  • Photos of the day debrief after dinner time – optional
  • Saturday no dive day local trips optional or travel independently
  • Sunday free morning transfer to airport and return

Diving cost is €400 for 5×2 tank dives to be booked in advance through me. For those we will have exclusive use of the boat optional dives in the afternoon non exclusive will be €35 per dive. Accommodation will be typically less than €600 euro for the week in single occupation and plane in the region of £100-150 depending on extras. I can help with accommodation, travel and transfers. You can also rent a car as low as £15 per day this is especially of value if planning to come with partner or family.

Please fill the contact form if interested spaces will be limited to maximum 8 for the trip. I think it will be a long time for anyone to be in tropical waters with the Covid-19 situation, this is an opportunity not to be missed until the water stays warm and enjoy one of the world very best destinations.

121 with pietro cremone

This week 121 is with Pietro Cremone who is a long standing photographer and also runs the Fotosub Shop who is the distributor of most key brands of underwater imaging and Nauticam importer for Italy.

Pietro is a people person everybody knows him in the Italian underwater photography scene and during this lock down he has made series of live shows on facebook that have been both informative and entertaining. Pietro is very active on the web and social media and I invite you to connect with him.

Personal Website

Facebook

Instagram

Bio

I was born in 1964 in Castellammare di Stabia, and from an early age I was fascinated by the sea.

Pietro with his current Rig

As a child I enjoyed exploring the tide pools with mask and fins, and later I started spear fishing with my small spring-speargun, with which fortunately I could not catch almost anything.

Growing up, I replaced the speargun with the camera.

Over the years, my passion for underwater photography has grown a lot, and I decided to turn it into a profession
Since 2009 I am the owner of  Fotosub Shop, an underwater photography shop that has become the Italian reference point for underwater images in just a few years.

I occasionally participate photographic contests, and I have had many satisfactions, with some of my photos exhibited in museums and even at the United Nations on the occasion of World Oceans’ Day.

With my colleagues Marcello Di Francesco and Massimo Zannini we won the World Shootout national championship in 2018, and this year we were again in the final 5. 

My latest awards are an Honorable Mention for the Slideshow section in Ocean Geographics contest, another HM in the Memorial Maria Luisa and a first place in macro section for the Dive Into Pink contest. 

Questions

When did you start underwater photography and why?

I started very early, around 1989 after my first tropical trip in Thailand. What I saw while snorkelling in Phi Phi island was so exciting that I decided to start with UW photo.  I was not yet a diver but I enjoyed a lot trying to shoot on the surface and skin diving.

Interesting shots can be taken snorkelling or skin diving

How much diving experience did you have when you started?

None! I took the camera underwater just after my OWD license. I was already photographing in snorkelling with a digital compact. 

Compact cameras can get you started in underwater photography – This shot is NOT with a compact…!

Were you a land photographer before starting? 

Yes, I loved photography since when I was 20.

What were you shooting and do you still shoot land photography? 

I love shooting landscapes and portraits, and often I shoot my cats 😊 

The eye of a landscape photographer translate well in underwater wide angle
Mushroom

What was your first underwater camera and housing?

I started with a Nikon FG SLR in a NIMAR housing, but my first serious shoots underwater were with a CANON A90 compact with the small Canon housing.

Pietro Started with a Canon Powershot compact

What is your current camera rig and why did you choose it?

Actually I shoot with an NIKON D850 housed in Nauticam. Since 2010 my housing choice is Nauticam, not only because I’m the Italian distributor for this brand, but because I always loved the perfect ergonomy and usability of these housings, along with the impressive choice of ports and accessories that I can achieve.

The NA-850 for Nikon D850 and a set of Retra Strobes

What is your favourite discipline (wide angle, macro, portraits, blackwater, etc)?

I love wide-angle photography very much, although I don’t mind small subjects, that I always try to portray with a small artistic and personal touch. Some times ago I discovered the wonders of blackwater in Anilao and it has become one of my favourites!

Sea Lion and baitball
Red and green
Bull Shark Portrait
Anilao blackwater diving
More blackwater
Rhinopia bubbling up
Abstract

What has been to date your best trip from a photography viewpoint? 

I have 2 places in my heart: Raja Ampat and Baja California. They can offer all that an underwater photographer can dream!

Raja Ampat and piers
Flowers in the sky
Rampant Flabella

How many trips have you done in the last 3 years and where?

I’m very lucky because I can travel a lot thanks to my work (I run workshops and guided trips for my customers). 

My last trips took me often in Indonesia (Raja Ampat, Wakatobi, Maratua), Philippines (Anilao, Puerto Galera), Maldives, Red Sea, Baja California.

Oslob Whale Sharks
Classic cayman
Manta Madness
Back to back Pygmy
Jellyfish burst
Manta on carpet
Goby life

Has there been a defining moment where you think your photography improved significantly?

Yes, I started diving and photographing in 2006 but around 2010 I met Mimmo Roscigno, one of the greatest Italian photographers, and with his inspiration my photo started to improve a lot. Then in 2012 I had the pleasure to be in a workshop held by Alex Mustard, and that was another important milestone in my career. 

Mimmo Roscigno historical Italian Underwater Photographer

What is your personal favourite shot among all you have taken?

That’s a hard question, because I have so much images that I love! But there is one that is special for me, it depicts a Pilot Whale with its newborn calf shot in Atlantic Ocean.

Pietro own favourite shots of pilot whales mum and calf

I found this shot so sweet and awe inspiring, and remembers me a very special moment spent with these wonderful animals.

It also won the “Coup de coeur” in a Festisub edition. 

Eye level

RED SEA 2021 UNDERWATER IMAGE MAKERS LIVEABOARD

Due to Covid-19 I have decided to postpone the boat to 31 July 2021. I have also had some cancellations due to the same reason so currently have 7 spaces. Prices remain unchanged. What follows is content from the original post.

__________________________

Diving for images or video can be frustrating at times. I find this less so for macro and super macro where you are resort based and you can hire a guide with super sharp eyes that will help you find the right subjects. For wide angle it is a totally different story. Land based may preclude the best access to certain destinations whilst if you are on a liveaboard with divers there is a conflict of interest. The boat will typically run a fixed itinerary cruise and the result is that you will visit many times so more memorable than others and typically just once. The single dive you do may not be at the right time of the day and the ambient light may not be the best for what you trying to do.

I am self taught and I like to read books and experiment myself however some years ago I was invited by Nauticam to a Red Sea workshop with Alex Mustard.

I wrote some articles at the time you can find them all if you click this link https://interceptor121.com/?s=workshop

What I really liked about that workshop was the ability to steer the boat to the right sites, to be able to dive at the right time of the day and also to repeat dives on the best sites and omit the areas that were not promising. For me this had great value on its own.

Of course Dr Alex Mustard tuition was also superb however I have now done this workshop 3 times and I believe that element has become less interesting. I also happened to work in Sharm El Sheikh as resident instructor at the Marriot Hotel so all dive sites were already known to me as a diver at least.

On those workshops I found very useful the fact that you could see the work of others and learn from the group, I also like the fact that there was no competition so everybody was encouraged to share.

Needless to say that after years of diving the same sites I still find the Northern Wreck and reefs of the Red Sea one of the best imaging destination in the world so I thought how do I have the same experience without the workshop part and the related high costs – it costs almost double a standard diving trip to book Alex workshop and they are fully booked almost immediately.

A further issue that has occurred in time is that there are no flights to Sharm El Sheikh from UK and now majority of boats live from Hurghada. This seriously limits the workshop as you have a lot more navigation.

So my ideal requirements for such a trip would be:

  1. Boat to live from Sharm El Sheikh not Hurghada. I rather have indirect flights and burn land time vs consuming cruise time in transfers
  2. Need to be able to have full control of the itinerary
  3. Dive as a photographer with a loose buddy concept
  4. Have a good boat and logistics
  5. Have small number of people in the water – I think 20 is too much so I have set my target to 8 min 12 max

I reconnected with my old network and after looking around I have found a boat and a company that can help with this.

King Snefro is the only liveaboard fleet currently departing from Sharm El Sheikh and the boat of choice is the Snefro Pearl

Cruise Dates: 31 July – 7 August 2021

Price: €1250 per Pax in twin cabin includes:

  • 32% Nitrox
  • Airport transfers
  • 12 Liter tanks
  • 3 meals, snacks and soft drinks, tea and coffee
  • Special imaging orientated dive briefing to make the most of the sites
  • Group image debrief – optional participation
  • Arrival on Saturday 31st July – check in commences at 1800
  • Check out Saturday 7th August – 1200 latest
  • For those whose flight leaves much later possibility of a stop gap in a beach resort before final departure

You need to be a PADI Advanced Open Water Diver or equivalent and 30 logged dives are required for this safari. All dives, especially some more demanding wreck dives, are subject to diver’s qualification and experience. 

EAN or other Nitrox certification required if not training will be provided on the boat at a charge.

Extra Hotel arrangements if you are coming the day before or leaving the day after

per night per person

*Club El Faraana Reef*​ –  www.faraanareef.com

Halfboard  in Single Room = 50 € per night per person
 Soft All in per in Single room = 60 € per night per person

Halfboard  in Double  Room = 35 € per night per person
Soft All in Double room = 45 € per night per person

Halfboard  in Triple  Room = 30 € per night per person
Soft All in Triple room = 40 € per night per person

Service Charge & taxes included, Transfer Airport to Hotel/ Hotel to Airport is included
(Check in starts from 14:00 H, Check out till 12:00 H,  in combination with safari booking early check in or late check out will be arranged free of charge) 

On to the dive sites:

Wrecks of Abu Nuhas

Giannis D

Gianni's D classic shot
Giannis D Classic Shot

Carnatic

Encircled
Silversides and diver in the Carnatic

Chrisoula K

Chrisoula K Bow
Bow of Chrisoula K

The Tugboat

Stay Away from my Eggs
Tiger cardinal fish with eggs

The Thistlegorm

Motorbike in Hold 2
bike on hold 2

Ras Za’tar (Optional site for sunbursts)

Sunburst
Suburst on Ras Za-tar

Jackfish Alley – Optional site for caves

1st Cave@Jackfish Alley
Cave 2 Jackfish alley

Ras Mohammed where at that time of the year you can have various shoals of fish

Bohar Snappers

Sunburst  Snap
Snapper Sunburst

Barracudas

Arrows
Arrows

Batfish

Schooling Batfish on Reef
Bats

Surgeonfish

Toilet Flush
Toilet flush

Instead of night dives we will do snorkelling session for split shots or sunset dives

Sunset Neat
Sunset on Ras Katy

I will be glad to help with ideas for the sites or the shots to take however this is not for beginners so if you don’t know even how to work out your camera works maybe it is not for you. The trip is open to photographers and videographers I will shoot both and will provide assistance as required. Below little sample of the video opportunity in Shark Reef

Please use the form to book a space. In case the cruise it is sold out I will operate strictly a first come first serve basis at time of writing there are five space left so hurry up. In case of cancellation I will also run a wait list. Please inquiry for any other details as well

121 with Nicholas More

I have met Nick in 2015 and I was immediately impressed by his techniques and shots and we have been on a couple of trips together were I have been able to see the dedication he puts in getting the right image. Nick has the mindset required to take stunning images without a doubt.

So I am very pleased to share this post with you. Nick has also provided me with a set of pictures that I will host here. To stay up to date with his shots follow him on Instagram

If you want technical details on how to take motion blur shots the best path is to get a copy of the 2020 edition of Martin Edge‘s book The Underwater Photographer: a classic in the library of each underwater shooter.

Underwater photographer 2020 Edition

Chapter 9 of the 2020 edition is dedicated to Motion Blur and is authored by Nicholas More in person so you get the low down required by the photographer who has made this style his trademark.

Who is Nicholas (Nick) More?

Nick and his trusted D500 during a workshop with Dr Alex Mustard – use permitted

Dr Nicholas More is a Dental Surgeon from Exmouth, Devon, UK and is married to Rachel and father to their son, Ben. He has been diving since his teenage years and is now a PADI Dive Master, with well over 2000 dives. Nick combined this with photography in 2012. 

Key Achievements

Nick is a multi-award winning Underwater Photographer and the current British Underwater Photographer of the Year. His other notable achievements include numerous commendations in the British Wildlife Photography Awards (BWPA) and the Underwater Photographer of the Year (UPY), back-back wins in the BSoUP Print competition and a Silver medal in the Our World Underwater Photo competition.

Underwater Photographer of the Year:

British Underwater Photographer of the Year – 2020.

Highly Commended UPY – Wide Angle – 2020.

Commended UPY – Portraits – 2020.

Highly Commended UPY – Black & White – 2019.

Highly Commended UPY – British Wide Angle – 2019.

Commended UPY – Portraits – 2019

Runner Up: British Wide Angle UPY – 2018.

Highly Commended UPY – Portraits – 2018

The shot that awarded Nick the British UPY 2020 and Highly Commended UPY – Wide Angle – 2020

.

UPY 2020 Highly Commended Portraits
Highly Commended UPY – British Wide Angle – 2019.
Commended UPY – Portraits – 2019
Runner Up: British Wide Angle UPY – 2018

Ocean Art:

1st Place – Wide Angle – 2019

Runner-Up – Reef-scapes – 2019

Honourable Mention – Reef-scapes – 2019

Wide angle Ocean art 2019 Winner

Ocean Art 2019 Reefscape runner up

British Wildlife Photography Awards:

2 x Highly Commended BWPA – 2019.

Grey Seal Halichoerus grypus

Our World Underwater.

Silver medal, Macro Unrestricted – 2017.

Lembeh / Gulen Shootout:

Grand Prize Winner – 2018

Think Pink Photo Contest:

Winner – 2017.

BSoUP / Diver Print Competition:

BSoUP:

Grand Prize Winner – 2016 / 2017.

Judges Vote: 

Highly commended – 2014 / 2015 / 2017 / 2019.

Public Vote: 

Overseas Winner – 2013.

Advanced Overseas Runner-Up – 2014 / 2016.

Advanced British & Irish Runner-Up – 2016 / 2017.

Questions and Answers

When did you start underwater photography and why?

I have been diving since the 1990s. I started UW photography in 2012 as digital compact cameras became common place. I caught the bug very quickly and never looked back.

How much diving experience did you have when you started?

LOTS! I had approx. 1500 dives when i started UW photography. Im a PADI DM.

Were you a land photographer before starting?

NO! The only land photography I do is with an iPhone. I did go on safari in 2018 to Botswana, I borrowed a telephoto lens and got some pretty nice shots of the wildlife. The only subject I shoot on land is my son, Ben!

What was your first underwater camera and housing?

My 1st UW camera system was a Canon S95 in Canon polycarbonate housing. No strobes, just 1 touch custom WB, i did have an Inon Wide Angle wet lens that made a big difference. 

Amazon.com : Canon WP-DC38 Waterproof Housing for Canon S95 ...
Nick first camera was a Canon S95 in a classic polycarbonate housing

I then moved to micro 4/3rds with an Olympus OM-D before moving to a Nikon7100/7200.

What is your current camera rig and why did you choose it?

I shoot with a Nikon D500 in a Nauticam housing. I use Inon Z240 & Z330 strobes depending whether I’m shooting Wide or Macro. It has been very successful for me & I know the housing like the back of my hand. 

The Nikon D500 is a popular choice among underwater photographer and is the camera Nick shoots in a Nauticam housing

The D500 has super fast AF and great IQ. Im considering full frame but I wouldn’t trade my D500 rig. It would be used alongside.

What is your favourite discipline (wide angle, macro, portraits, blackwater, etc)?

I enjoy shooting Wide angle & macro. My preference is shooting animal portraits big & small. I like to shoot using motion blur. 

Im not a fan of wrecks or divers in my shots. Im more interested in the animals.

What has been to date your best trip from a photography viewpoint?

Raja Ampat without doubt. My last trip has produced numerous competition winners including some i can’t talk about yet! Raja has it all. The biodiversity is off the scale. 

striated frogfish or hairy frogfish Antennarius striatus Retra LSD Snoot

How many trips have you done in the last 3 years and where?

Ive had around 10 trips in the past 3 years. Trips include Lembeh / Raja Ampat & Bali. The Egyptian Red Sea and the Bahamas & Cuba for sharks and other big animals. I decide on which trips I go on depending on location, subjects and I have a preference for attending workshops with Alex Mustard & Wetpixel.  

Has there been a defining moment where you think your photography improved significantly?

Most definitely. Paul Duxfield taught me the basics and encouraged experimentation. Alex Mustard and his workshop participants then inspired  me to improve….quickly. Im competitive my nature so challenged myself to be the best I can be. I won the overseas category of the Diver / BSoUP Print Competition in 2013 at my 1st attempt. This meant I had to enter advanced / pro categories from then on – I had to improve! Long way to go….. 

What is your personal favourite shot among all you have taken?

My favourite shot, is a unique image of a porcelain crab, backlit through its host anemone. It was awarded Highly Commended in the Black & White category in UPY 2019. Its difficult to be original in UW photography and I feel this image is,  as its not been done before or since!

Nick personal favourite is the unique shot of a porcelain crab Highly Commended UPY – Black & White – 2019.
Periclimenes colemani Snooted Colemans Shrimp Portrait Retra LSD Snoot
Motion blur also works with schooling fish
Fast moving Stingray of the Red Sea

SNR in Digital Cameras in 2020

There are significant number of misconceptions about noise in digital cameras and how this depends on variables like the sensor size or the pixel size. In this short post I will try to explain in clear terms the relationship between Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) and sensor size.

Signal (S) is the number of photons captured by the lens and arriving on the sensor, this will be converted in electric signal by the sensor and digitised later on by an Analog Digital Converter (ADC) and further processed by Digital Signal Processors (DSP). Signal depending on light is not affected by pixel size but by sensor size. There are many readings on this subject and you can google it yourself using sentences like ‘does pixel size matter’. Look out for scientific evidence backed up by data and formulas and not YouTube videos.

S = P * e where P is the photon arrival rate that is directly proportional to the surface area of the sensor, through physical aperture of the lens and solid angle of view, and e is the exposure time.

This equation also means that once we equalise lens aperture there is no difference in performance between sensors. Example two lenses with equivalent field of view 24mm and 12mm on full frame and MFT with crop 2x when the lens aperture is equalised produce the same SNR. Considering a full frame at f/2.8 and the MFT at f/1.4 gives the same result as 24/2.8=12/1.4 this is called constrained depth of field. And until there is sufficient light ensures SNR is identical between formats.

Noise is made of three components:

  1. Photon Noise (PN) is the inherent noise in the light, that is made of particles even though is approximated in optics with linear beams
  2. Read Noise (RN) is the combined read noise of the sensor and the downstream electronic noise
  3. Dark Current Noise (DN) is the thermal noise generated by long exposure heating up the sensor

I have discovered wordpress has no equation editor so forgive if the formulas appear rough.

Photo Noise is well mapped by Poisson distribution and the average level can be approximated with SQRT(S).

The ‘apparent’ read noise is generally constant and does not depend on the signal intensity.

While 3 is fundamental to Astrophotography it can be neglected for majority of photographic applications as long as the sensor does not heat up so we will ignore it for this discussion.

If we write down the Noise equation we obtain the following:

Noise=sqrt({PN}^2+{RN}^2+{DN}^2)

Ignoring DN in our application we have two scenarios, the first one is where the signal is strong enough that the Read Noise is considerably smaller than Photon Noise. This is the typical scenario in standard working conditions of a camera. If PN >> RN the signal to noise ratio becomes:

SNR =sqrt S

S is unrelated to pixel size but is affected by sensor size. If we take a camera with a full frame and one with a 2x crop factor at high signal rate the full frame camera and identical f/number it has double the SNR of the smaller 2x crop. Because the signal is high enough this benefit is almost not visible in normal conditions. If we operate at constrained depth of field the larger sensor camera has no benefit on the smaller sensor.

When the number of photons collected drops the Read Noise becomes more important than the photon noise. The trigger point will change depending on the size of the sensor and smaller sensor will become subject to Read Noise sooner than larger sensors but broadly the SNR benefit will remain double. If we look at DxOMark measurements of the Panasonic S1 full frame vs the GH5 micro four thirds we see that the benefit is around 6 dB at the same ISO value, so almost spot on with the theory.

Full Frame vs MFT SNR graph shows 2 stop benefit over 2x crop

Due to the way the curve of SNR drops the larger sensor camera will have a benefit or two stops also on ISO and this is the reason why DxOMark Sport Score for the GH5 is 807 while the S1 has a sport score of 3333 a total difference of 2.046 stops. The values of 807 and 3333 are measured and correspond to 1250 and 5000 on the actual GH5 and S1 cameras.

If we consider two Nikon camera the D850 full frame and the D7500 APSC we should find the difference to be one stop ISO and the SNR to drop at the same 3 dB per ISO increment.

The graphic from DxoMark confirms the theory.

Full Frame vs APSC SNR graph shows 1 stop benefit over 1.5x crop

If the SNR does not depend on pixel size, why do professional video cameras and, some high end SLR, have smaller pixel count? This is due to a feature called dual native ISO. It is obvious that a sensor has only one sensitivity and this cannot change, so what is happening then? We have seen that when signal drops, the SNR becomes dominated by the Read Noise of the sensor so what manufacturers do is to cap the full well capacity of the sensor and therefore cap the maximum dynamic range and apply a much stronger amplification through a low signal amplifier stage. In order to have enough signal to be effective the cameras have large pixel pitch so that the maximum signal per pixel is sufficiently high that even clipped is high enough to benefit from the amplification. This has the effect of pushing the SNR up two stops on average. Graphic of the read noise of the GH5s and S1 show a similar pattern.

Panasonic Dual Gain Amplifier in MFT and Full Frame cameras shows knees in the read noise graphs

Sone manufacturers like Sony appear to use dual gain systematically even with smaller pixel pitch in those cases the benefit is reduced from 2 stops to sometimes 1 or less. Look carefully for the read noise charts on sites like photonsforphotos to understand the kind of circuit in your camera and make the most of the SNR.

Because most of the low light situation have limited dynamic range, and the viewer is more sensitive to noise than DR, when the noise goes above a certain floor the limitation of the DR is seen as acceptable. The actual DR is falling well below values that would be considered acceptable for photography, but with photos you can intervene on noise in post processing but not DR, so highest DR is always the priority. This does not mean however that one should artificially inflate requirements introducing incorrect concepts like Useable DR especially when the dual gain circuit reduce maximum DR. Many cameras from Sony and Panasonic and other manufacturers have a dual gain amplifier, sometimes advertised other times not. A SNR of 1 or 0 dB is the standard to define useable signal because you can still see an image when noise and signal are comparable.

It is important to understand that once depth of field is equalised all performance indicators flatten and the benefit of one format on the other is at the edges of the ISO range, at very low ISO values and very high ISO and in both cases is the ability of the sensor to collect more photons that makes the difference, net of other structural issues in the camera.

As majority of users do not work at the boundaries of the ISO range or in low light and the differences in the more usual values get equalised, we can understand why many users prefer smaller sensor formats, that make not just the camera bodies smaller, but also the lenses.

In conclusion a larger sensor will always be superior to a smaller sensor camera regardless all additional improvement made by dual gain circuits. A full frame camera will be able to offer sustained dynamic range together with acceptable SNR value until higher ISO levels. Looking for example at the Panasonic video orientated S1H the trade off point of ISO 4000 is sufficient on a full frame camera to cover most real-life situation while the 2500 of the GH5s leaves out a large chunk of night scenes where in addition to good SNR, some dynamic range may still be required.

Producing and grading HDR content with the Panasonic GH5 in Final Cut Pro X

It has been almost two years from my first posts on HLG capture with the GH5 https://interceptor121.com/2018/06/15/setting-up-your-gh5-for-hlg-hdr-capture/ and last week Apple released Catalina 10.15.4 that now supports HDR-10 with compatible devices. Apple and in general computer are still not supporting HLG and it is unlikely this is ever going to happen as the gaming industry is following VESA DisplayHDR standard that is aligned to HDR-10.

After some initial experiments with GH5 and HLG HDR things have gone quiet and this is for two reasons:

  1. There are no affordable monitors that support HLG
  2. There has been lack of software support

While on the surface it looks like there is still no solution to those issues, in this post I will explain how to grade HLG footage in Final Cut Pro should you wish to do so. The situation is not that different on Windows and DaVinci Resolve that also only support HDR-10 monitors but I leave it to Resolve users to figure out. This tutorial is about final cut pro.

A word about Vlog

It is possible to use Vlog to create HDR content however VLOG is recorded as rec709 10 bits. Panasonic LUT and any other LUT are only mapping the VLOG gamma curve to Rec709 so your luminance and colours will be off.  It would be appropriate to have a VLOG to PQ LUT however I am not aware this exists. Surely Panasonic can create that but the VLOG LUT that comes with the camera is only for processing in Rec709. So, from our perspective we will ignore VLOG for HDR until such time we have a fully working LUT and clarity about the process.

Why is a bad idea to grade directly in HLG

There is a belief that HLG is a delivery format and it is not edit ready. While that may be true, the primary issue with HLG is that no consumer screens support BT.2020 colour space and the HLG gamma curve. Most display are plain sRGB and others support partially or fully DCI-P3 or the computer version Display P3. Although the white point is the same for all those colour spaces there is a different definition of what red, green and blue and therefore without taking into this into account, if you change a hue, the results will not be as expected. You may still white balance or match colours in HLG but you should not attempt anything more.

What do you need for grading HDR?

In order to successfully and correctly grade HDR footage on your computer you need the following:

  • HDR HLG footage
  • Editing software compatible with HDR-10 (Final Cut or DaVinci)
  • An HDR-10 10 bits monitor

If you want to produce and edit HDR content you must have compatible monitor let’s see how we identify one.

Finding an HDR-10 Monitor

HDR is highly unregulated when it comes to monitors, TVs have Ultra HD Premium Alliance and recently Vesa has introduced DisplayHDR standards https://displayhdr.org/ that are dedicated to display devices. So far, the Display HDR certification has been a prerogative of gaming monitors that have quick response time, high contrast but not necessarily high colour accuracy. We can use the certified list of monitors to find a consumer grade device that may be fit for our purpose: https://displayhdr.org/certified-products/

A DisplayHDR 1000 certified is equivalent to a PQ grading device as it has peak brightness of 1000 nits and minimum of 0.005 this is ideally what you want, but you can get by with an HDR-400 certified display as long as it supports wide colour gamut. In HDR terms wide gamut means covering the DCI-P3 colour space at least for 90% so we can use Vesa list to find a monitor that is HDR-10 compatible and has a decent colour accuracy. Even inside the HDR-400 category there are displays that are fit for purpose and reasonably priced. If you prefer a brand more orientated to professional design or imaging look for the usual suspects Eizo, Benq, and others but here it will be harder to find HDR support as usually those manufacturers are focussed on colour accuracy, so you may find a display covering 95% DCI-P3 but not necessarily producing a high brightness. As long as the device supports HDR-10 you are good to go.

I have a Benq PD2720U that is HDR-10 certified, has a maximum brightness of 350 nits and a minimum of 0.35, it covers 100% sRGB and REC709 and 95% DCI-P3, so is adequate for the task. It is worth nothing that a typical monitor with 350-400 nits brightness offers 10 stops of dynamic range.

In summary any of this will work if you do not have a professional grade monitor:

  • Look into Vesa list https://displayhdr.org/certified-products/ and identify a device that supports at least 90% DCI-P3, ideally HDR-1000 but less is ok too
  • Search professional display specifications for HDR-10 compatibility and 10 bits wide gamut > 90% DCI-P3

 

Final Cut Pro Steps

The easy way to have HDR ready content with the GH5 is to shoot with the HLG Photo Style. This produces clips that when analysed have the following characteristics with AVCI coded.

MediaInfo Details HLG 400 Mbps clip

Limited means that it is not using the full 10 bits range for brightness you do not need to worry about that.

With your material ready create a new library in Final Cut Pro that has a Wide Gamut and import your footage.

As we know Apple does not support HLG so when you look at the Luma scope you will see a traditional Rec709 IRE diagram. In addition, the ‘Tone Mapping Functionality’ will not work so you do not have a real idea of colour and brightness accuracy.

At this stage you have two options:

  1. Proceed in HLG and avoid grading
  2. Convert your material in PQ so that you can edit it

We will go on option 2 as we want to grade our footage.

Create a project with PQ gamut and enter your display information in the project properties. In my case the display has a minimum brightness of 0.35 nits and max of 350 and it has P3 primaries with a standard D65 white point. It is important to know those parameters to have a good editing experience otherwise the colours will be off. If you do not know your display parameters do some research. I have a Benq monitor that comes with a calibration certificate the information is right there. Apple screens are typically also P3 with D65 white point and you can find the maximum brightness in the specs. Usually around 500 nits for apple with minimum of 0.5 nits. Do not enter Rec2020 in the monitor information unless your monitor has native primaries in that space (there are almost none). Apple documentation tells you that if you do not know those values you can leave them blank, final cut pro will use the display information from colour sync and try a best match but this is far from ideal.

Monitor Metadata in the Project Properties

For the purpose of grading we will convert HLG to PQ using the HDR tools. The two variants of HDR have a different way to manage brightness so a conversion is required however the colour information is consistent between the two.

Please note that the maximum brightness value is typically 1000 Nits however there are not many displays out there that support this level of brightness, for the purpose of what we are going to do this is irrelevant so DO NOT change this value. Activate tone mapping accessible under the view pull down in the playback window this will adapt the footage to your display according to the parameters of the project without capping the scopes in the project.

Use HDR Tools to convert HLG to PQ

Finalising your project

When you have finished with your editing  you have two options:

  • Stay in PQ and produce an HDR-10 master
  • Delete all HDR tools HLG to PQ conversions and change back the project to HLG

If you produce an HDR-10 master you will need to edit twice for SDR: duplicate the project and apply the HDR tool from HLG to SDR or other LUT of your choice.

If you stay in HLG you will produce a single file but is likely that HDR will only be displayed on a narrower range of devices due to the lack of support of HLG in computers. The HLG clip will have correct grading as the corrections performed when the project was in PQ with tone mapping will survive the editing as HLG and PQ share the same colour mapping. The important thing is that you were able to see the effects of your grade.

Project back in HLG you can see how the RGB parade and the scope are back to IRE but all is exactly the same as with PQ

In my case I have an HLG TV so I produce only one file as I can’t be bothered doing the exercise two times.

The steps to produce your master file are identical to any other projects, I recommend creating a ProRes 422 HQ master and from there other formats using handbrake. If you change your project back to HLG you will get a warning about the master display you can ignore it.

The Impact of APSC DSLR Phase-Out on Underwater photography

This post will be a bit surprising for those that think I am an MFT partisan and despise any other format, as you probably imagine that is far from truth. This post will look at the strength of the APSC DSLR segment.

If you follow the rumours and announcements of Canon and Nikon you are probably aware that Nikon is not planning any new professional APSC DSLR and Canon just released the last model with the 90D and will not be releasing a new 5D camera having just released the 1DX Mark III.

This is going to be a significant blow to underwater photographers around the world as today most of competition winners shoot an APSC DSLR camera, in particular the Nikon D500 is probably the most popular camera of serious underwater shooters.

What makes APSC DSLR Unique for Underwater Photography?

In an image we can understand what has made this format such a great option

The Tokina Fisheye zoom 10-17 f3.5-4.5 DX lens

The Tokina zoom fisheye is simply the best native option for wide angle underwater photography. It is cost effective and despite the apparent low quality on land it takes some amazing underwater pictures.

What makes this lens even more interesting is that it produces decent results with a small 4.33″ dome.

Nauticam 4.33 Acrylic dome for Tokina 10-17

There are several option acrylic and glass and if you want even better quality you can go for larger dimensions.

Today you can get the Tokina 10-17mm with his port for £1000 which is less than the cost of a Nauticam WWL-1 and much less than any WACP or Nikkor Nikonos vintage lenses.

Nauticam D500

Another extremely popular choice but this time for macro is the Sigma 105mm F2.8 EX DG OS HSM Macro Lens or otherwise the OEM Canon 100mm and Nikon 105mm macro lenses. Those have been taking some amazing super macro shots in the last 10 years plus thanks to 150+mm equivalent focal length.

APSC Mirrorless Cameras

Both Nikon and Canon have launched new mirrorless APSC and with that a new lens format. Sadly the Tokina 10-17mm autofocus will no longer work. This is a major blow and we need to understand if Tokina will delivery a Z mount version of their mythical lens.

Mirrorless cropped format has been the domain of Sony and Micro Four Thirds due Olympus and Panasonic for the last 5 years and it looks like there are no benefits at sensor level between 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0 crop that are meaningful.

Sony APSC and Micro Four Third beat or match latest APSC mirrorless offering from Canon and Nikon

The other issue is that Canon and Nikon mirrorless are also behind in terms of autofocus compared to MFT, while they already are matching or beating Sony.

As a new user would you buy an APSC camera from Nikon or Canon or prefer Sony? Would you just get a micro four thirds that at least has commitment from two brands and a complete set of lenses and ports for underwater use? Nikon themselves have branded their Z50 camera as a non professional unit and make self limiting design choices that are evidence that their commitment is for full frame, this is the only segment where they are making profits currently.

Future of Full Frame DSLR

Canon is definitely abandoning the DSLR ship and has some good mirrorless penetration with their 5DSR and have just announced the EOS R5 that will be the first unit with IBIS and have 8K video.

Nikon is still hanging to their upper range D series for full frame DSLR but it has been also moving strongly into full frame mirroless.

Both Canon and Nikon are no longer developing their DSLR lenses mounts.

Considering the domination of Nikon in the full frame underwater photography segment the full decline of DSLR will not happen for at least another 2 or 3 years but the time will come.

Conclusion

The extinction of APSC DSLR is not good news for underwater photography as currently no other format can match the choice of ports and lenses available to those shooters. There is a risk that a camera like a Nikon D500 becomes a precious 2nd hand commodity however shutters do wear out so this is not a sustainable path.

A few years ago we witnessed the death of compact cameras to phones and this was a first blow to entry level underwater photographers.

The upcoming death of APSC DSLR is going to hit deeper in the semipro user group however alternatives are available thought not matching the same flexibility of lenses and ports.

Our passion is getting increasingly more expensive as the digital camera market focusses on full frame and also more bulky and difficult to carry around.

Autofocus Systems for Underwater Photography

You will notice that the featured image is actually a bird in flight. When we think about fast autofocus birds in flights is what is really going to test performance.

This image was taken by my wife with a Nikon D7100 and a Sigma 70-200mm lens in the Galapagos Islands.

I also shoot birds with my Panasonic G9 and have a direct experience of focus systems for moving subjects and I can comfortably say that today AI has become more important than anything else for those kind of shots. Artificial intelligence predicts movement and ensures that once the camera has reached focus the first time it reacts automatically to movement without the need to refocus.

Let’s start from the basics first.

Types of Autofocus

There are two types of systems for auto focus in digital cameras:

  • Phase Detection
  • Contrast Detection

Both systems need contrast to focus despite the naming convention, so phase detection works on contrast too.

In situation of low light low contrast EVERY camera switches to contrast detection without exceptions.

Contrast Detection AF

This is the simplest and cheapest way to obtain focus and is what is typically implemented in compact cameras. Contrast detection moves the focus back and forth to find the maximum contrast and then locks on subject. This is sometimes perceived as hunting by the user when the camera fails to find focus.

Contrast detection is the most accurate method of autofocus as it looks for perfection without prioritising time. With exception of Panasonic no other major brands use contrast detection AF on high end or semipro models.

Phase Detection AF

With this technique the image goes through a prism and it is split then when the two parts match the subject is in focus and the focus locked.

Phase detection is less accurate than contrast detection in particular there are instances in which focus is achieved in front or behind the subject. This is the system implemented by Nikon, Canon, Olympus and Canon.

Hybrid AF

This system combines both methods, it starts with phase detect to determine the focus start and then uses contrast detect to make sure the focus is accurate. Sony is the main driver of this technology.

Low Light Focus

All autofocus methods need light to function without exception, when the scene is really dark cameras have some methods to achieve focus, this includes:

  • Using the lens widest aperture to focus
  • Bump the ISO and then adjust later
  • Auto focus illuminator and modelling lights

Generally low light is less than 1.25 Lux or candela per square meter representing a really dark scene.

Pro and Cons of Each System

If we look at the three systems each one has positive and negatives and depending on the subject this are more or less important.

SystemSpeedAccuracy
Phase DetectFasterLess accurate
Contrast detectSlowerMore accurate
HybridSlowestMore Accurate
AF comparison Table

Performance Requirement for Underwater Photography

Many underwater photographer think that they need a system that focus fast, can track moving objects and work well in the dark, this system of course does not exist.

In particular considering the availability of focus lights the performance in low light is definitely not a show stopper. More important are speed and accuracy. For the purpose of a comparison I have included here some models from Sony, Panasonic, Olympus, Nikon and Canon with a variety of formats representing some popular choices among underwater photographers.

I have included 3 performance metrics for comparison:

  • AF time
  • Low Light Low Contrast Ev
  • Low Light High Contrast Ev

The first measure tells you how quick the camera focuses in normal conditions, this is in my opinion the most important parameter as generally underwater photography is not below 1 Ev.

The second measure is the number of Ev of low light the camera can still focus with a low contrast subject, and finally the third is still a low light scenario with a high contrast subject. Let’s look at the results that are build using test data from imaging resource.

AF comparison table

I have used conditional formatting so green is good amber is average and red is bad for each category.

AF Time

First observation is that hybrid AF is very slow, second contrast AF as implemented by Panasonic is faster than most of DSLR peers in this table. If we consider 0.2 seconds as acceptable the full frame mirrorless Sony A7RIII has unacceptable performance. While the Nikon D850 AF is in another league both MFT Olympus and Panasonic are faster than other APSC and even the canon full frame.

Low Light Low Contrast AF

Mirrorless cameras dominate this category, the Panasonic GH5 can reach focus at -4.5 Ev that is practically dark on a low contrast subject, second is the Sony A7 RIII and third the Olympus OMD-EM1MKII.

In a low light scenario phase detection fails sooner so some of those cameras switch to contrast detection to achieve focus.

Low Light High Contrast AF

All cameras are able to work at least at -3 Ev so this is not a distinctive category, it is worth nothing that some phase detect system that failed in the low contrast target scenario perform well in this category but generally performance is pretty decent.

Why are your shot blurred?

Some people that have the camera in the table still struggle to get shots, why is that? I have found that for most users do not read instruction manuals and to make it worse modern camera have far too many AF settings. My GH5 for example has 6 options of AF area, 4 options for AF Mode, 3 parameters for tuning the AI (artificial intelligence) engine, plus additional custom modes to select the 225 focus points in any random shape you like. The average person will skip all of this and select one option and then fail the shots.

Conclusion

Surprisingly for some if we look overall at the camera that has green in all categories we find two mirrorless micro four thirds. Even more surprisingly both those cameras are faster to focus than APSC DSLR from Canon and Nikon although it is not really a great distance.

Typically when it comes to comparison between camera there is someone that says but camera X gets the shots blurred so speed does not matter. I talk by direct experience with outdoor and birds not just fish and I can tell you that each system will miss shots in burst mode but more importantly underwater photography is nowhere near requirements for birds in flight.

I have performed tests with a light meter at less than 1 candela per square meter with my GH5 with a 60mm macro lens and with my surprise it focuses just fine without the AF illuminator. I have to admit I do not really trust auto-focus so in most situation I use back button and peaking however based on my recent findings I need to trust autofocus a bit more it seems!

Choosing a Camera Format for Macro Underwater Photography

Following from my previous post I wanted to further investigate the implications of formats and megapixels on Macro Underwater Photography.

I also want to stress that my posts are not guides on which camera to choose. For Macro for example some people rely on autofocus so there is no point talking about sensors if your camera does not focus on the shot!

Macro underwater photography and fish portraits in general is easier than wide angle because is totally managed with artificial illumination, although some real masterpieces take advantage also of ambient light.

There are a number of misconceptions also here but probably on the opposite side of wide angle there is a school of thinking that smaller cameras are better for macro but is that really the case?

Myth 1: Wide angle lens -> More Depth of field than Macro

Depth of field depends on a number of factors you can find the full description on sites like Cambridge in Colour a good read is here.

A common misconception without even starting with sensor size is that depth of field is related to focal length and therefore a macro lens that is long has less depth of field than a wide angle lens.

If we look at a DOF formula we can see that the effect of focal length and aperture cancel themselvers

Depth of field approximation

A long lens will have a smaller field of view of a wide lens so the distance u will increase and cancel the effect of the focal length f.

The other variables in this formula are the circle of confusion c and the F-number N. As we are looking at the same sensor the c number is invariant and therefore at equal magnification the depth of field depends only on F number.

Example: we have a macro lens 60mm and a wide angle lens 12mm, and a subject at 1 meter with the 60mm lens. In order to have the same size subject (magnification) we need to shoot at 20cm with the 12mm lens at that point the depth of field will be the same at the same f-number.

So a wide angle lens does not give more depth of field but it gets you closer to a subject. At some point this gets too close and that is why macro lenses are long focal so you can have good magnification and decent working distance.

Myth 2: Smaller Sensor has more depth of field

We have already seen that sensor size is not in the depth of field formula so clearly sensor size is not related to depth of field so why is there such misconception?

Primarily because people do not understand depth of field equivalence and they compare the same f-number on two different formats.

Due to crop factor f/8 on a 2x crop sensor is equivalent to f/16 on a full frame and therefore as long as the larger sensor camera has smaller possible aperture there is no benefit on a smaller sensor for macro until there are available apertures.

So typically the smaller sensor is an advantage only at f/22 on a 2x MFT body or f/32 on a APSC compared to a DSLR. At this small aperture diffraction becomes significant so in real life even in the extreme cases there is no benefit.

Myth 3: Larger Sensor Means I can crop more

The high level of magnification of macro photography create a strain on resolution due to the effects of diffraction this has a real impact on macro photography.

We have two cases first case is camera with same megapixel count and different pixel size.

In our example we can compare a 20.3 MFT 2x crop camera with a 20.8 APSC 1.5x crop and a 20.8 full frame Nikon D5.

Those cameras will have different diffraction limits as they have pixels of 3.33, 4.2 and 6.4 microns respectively those sensor will reach diffraction at f/6.3, f/7.1 and f/11 respectively so in practical terms the smaller camera format have no benefit on larger sensor as even if there is higher depth of field at same f-number the equivalent depth of field and diffraction soon destroy the resolution cancelling the apparent benefit and confirming that sensor size does not matter.

Finally we examine the case of same pixel size and different sensor size.

This is the case for example of Nikon D500 vs D850 the two cameras have the same pixel size and therefore similar circle of confusion. This means that they will be diffraction limited at the same f-number despite the larger sensor. So the 45.7 megapixels of the D850 will not look any different from the 20.7 megapixels of the D500 and none will actually resolve 20.8 megapixels.

So what is the actual real resolution we can resolve?

Using this calculator you can enter parameters in megapixels for the various sensor size.

In macro photography depth of field is essential otherwise the shot is not in focus, for this exercise I have assumed comparable aperture and calculated the number of megapixels until diffraction destroys resolution

Formatf-NumberMP
MFT 2xf/117.1*
APSC 1.5xf/145.6
Full Framef/226.3
Resolution in Megapixels at constrained DOF

Note that the apparent benefit of MFT does not actually exist as the aspect ratio is 4:3 so once this is normalised to 3:2 we are back to the same 6.3 megapixels of full frame. APSC that has the strong reputation for macro comes last in this comparison.

So although you can crop more with more megapixels the resolution that you can achieve is dropping because of diffraction and therefore your macro image will always look worse when you crop even on screen as now most screens are 4K or 8 megapixels.

Other Considerations

For a macro image depth of field is of course essential to have a sharp shot however we have seen that sensor size is not actually a consideration and therefore everything is level.

Color depth is important in portrait work and provided we have the correct illumination full frame cameras are able to resolve more colours. We are probably not likely to see them anyway if we are diffraction limited but for mid size portraits there will be a difference between a full frame and any cropped format. In this graph you can see that there is nothing in between APSC and MFT but full frame has a benefit of 2.5 Ev and this will show.

The D850 has a clear benefit in color resolution compared to top range APSC and MFT

Conclusion

Surprisingly for most the format that has an edge for macro is actually full frame because it can resolve more colours. The common belief that smaller formats are better is not actually true however some of those rigs will definitely be more portable and able to access awkward and narrow spaces to what extent this is an advantage we will have to wait and see. It may be worth noting that macro competitions are typically dominated by APSC shooters whose crop factor is actually the worst looking at diffraction figures.